CoQ10 - Super Antioxidant
CoQ10 – “Spark and Dampener”
On this page:
is CoQ10 ?
Health Benefits of CoQ10
● What does CoQ10 do in your body?
are two forms of CoQ10 – Ubiquinone and Ubiquinol
Health problems associated with CoQ10 deficiency
cell makes CoQ10, so why are many deficient in it?
is CoQ10 distributed in the tissues?
● Supplementing with CoQ10
in Skin Care
Specific Potential Health Benefits of CoQ10
What is CoQ10?
Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin-like nutrient vital to
- In its essential
role in the production of cellular energy - CoQ10 is a relatively large,
worm-shaped quinone molecule, called UBIQUINONE because it was found to be
in the body – discovered
by Fred Crane, Phd. in 1957 in his quest to find the ”Missing link” in the
mitochondrial energy-producing process.
- as a powerful
antioxidant in the mitochondria
production factories) and cell
membranes - CoQ10 is the only
fat-soluble antioxidant synthesized by the body, but production diminishes
significantly with age - for some, CoQ10 levels within the
heart and kidneys have dropped more than 25% by age 40.
General Health Benefits of CoQ10?
CoQ10 sports an impressive resumé:
Boosts energy/stamina – provides the “spark” for your body’s cells to produce energy; Can
improve athletic performance;
Powerful Fat-soluble Antioxidant –
most diseases involve inflammation as a consequence of oxidative
damage; the active form of CoQ10 (called
ubiquinol) prevents an inflammatory reaction by protecting against free radical
damage in fats (e.g. cholesterol, polyunsaturated oils) or fatty areas (E.g.
all cell membranes are composed of fatty acids, the brain is 2/3 fat, the
protective myelin sheath covering communicating neurons is 70% fat).
Cardiovascular diseases and wrinkled
skin resulting from UV oxidation are
well-known examples of oxidative stress, but also, oxidation in the brain is
implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s, ALS, M.S.,
Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and cerebral palsy.
Supports cardiovascular health – promotes healthy circulation, efficient cardiac function, protects
LDL cholesterol from oxidation (the forerunner to atherosclerosis) and helps
maintain normal blood pressure; a healthy blood supply also supports brain
Reduces signs of aging – you feel more alert, responsive and energetic. Antioxidant ability
prevents and reduces wrinkles in the skin;
Supports immune and nervous systems – your brain is very active and requires
a constant energy supply. CoQ10 provides immune system with a vital free radical
defense E.g. in allergies;
Replenishes CoQ10 depleted when taking a
cholesterol-lowering statin drug or beta-blockers
Supports body’s ability to control blood sugar
preliminary studies show
CoQ10 to be anti-mutagenic (cancer cells develop through mutagenesis)
Protects the liver when using certain medications
What does CoQ10 do in the body?
CoQ10 is the fundamental ingredient for energy production in every cell
CoQ10 IGNITES the spark for energy production in the cell mitochondria
(the energy production “factories”
inside our cells) - CoQ10 shuttles electrons (extracted from food) back and
forth between enzymes in the cell mitochondria in the process of making ATP
molecules (the cells energy “currency”).
Without adequate amounts of CoQ10, the heart does
not have enough energy to pump the blood efficiently -
the heart has the highest concentration
It has been
reported that death can occur if the CoQ10 level in the heart decreases below
75% of normal.
In more detail
CoQ10 is a crucial component
of the electron transport chain (respiratory chain) in the mitochondria
where energy derived by a process called oxidative phosphorylation from the
products of fatty acid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism is converted into
biological energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that drives cellular
machinery and all biosynthetic processes. CoQ10 functions as an essential
cofactor for the activities of the enzyme systems called complexes I, II and III
in the electron transport chain. It shuttles electrons from complex I
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) and Complex II (succinate
dehydrogenase) to complex III (ubiquinone-cytochrome c reductase) by virtue of
its redox (reduction-oxidation) properties. It is during this process of
electron transfer along the electron transport chain that vital biological
energy as ATP is generated.
- CoQ10 is one of the “Super Antioxidants”
of antioxidants, there is a select group of networking antioxidants that are
particularly effective at slowing the aging process and boosting the body’s
ability to fight disease, these are:
Glutathione and Lipoic Acid – can be made by the body,
but levels decrease with age, and their deficiency is responsible for most
Vitamins C and E –
must be obtained from food or supplements,
since we can not make them.
“snuffs out” damaging free radicals produced in the mitochondrial energy -producing process
and other systems in the body, and also from sources outside the body. As
such, this fat-soluble antioxidant helps protect vital structures from free
Most important is
antioxidant protection inside the mitochondria -
CoQ10 is a broad spectrum AO protecting not just arteries, but also
brain, liver, muscles, nerves and other systems.
is a primary AO protector of LDL cholesterol –
CoQ10 prevents cholesterol from becoming oxidized, a cause of
arterial plaque build-up leading to arterial blockage.
helps maintain membrane stability
regenerates Vitamin C and E –
partners with vitamin C to keep vitamin E under control – preventing it from
CoQ10 activates Genes in nuclear DNA to turn back the Cellular Clock
According to Australian Anthony Linnane’s latest
CoQ10 sends a chemical messenger to the nucleus to “switch on” certain strategic
genes and fortify already degraded cellular systems (e.g. from the aging
Weakened cells regain strength helping those with conditions from
cancer to chronic fatigue to heart disease.
CoQ10 Makes Muscles Younger –
muscle tissue from patients supplementing 300mg daily CoQ10 for 1 month
compared to those taking placebo. He found that the CoQ10 group muscle produced
a dramatic change toward a more youthful profile. The muscle fiber change meant
that CoQ10 had modulated hundreds of genes relevant to muscle biochemistry.
There are two forms of CoQ10
– Ubiquinone and Ubiquinol
Ubiquinone is the OXIDIZED form of CoQ10
Ubiquinone is converted to ubiquinol - Whether produced in the body, obtained
from wholesome, unprocessed foods or supplemented, the body must then convert
ubiquinone to ubiquinol.
Ubiquinol is the REDUCED/ACTIVE form of CoQ10
In order to
have electrons to donate to free radicals,
antioxidants must be in their reduced form.
Ubiquinol is also present in certain foods.
age of 25, the body is quite capable of converting CoQ10 from the oxidized to
its reduced form, but the
body’s ability to convert oxidized CoQ10 into the necessary active ubiquinol
decreases with age and/or with oxidative stress.
They look different too
If you were to break open capsules of the two
supplement forms, you would see that -
ubiquinone (the oxidized form of CoQ10) is a bright yellow
crystallized powder, and that the ubiquinol (active form) is a much paler
Health problems associated with CoQ10
Suppressed CoQ10 levels have been shown in those
with cardiovascular, neurological, liver-related disease and type II diabetes - Supported
by a large body of data, the following link details where CoQ10 supplementation
has been found to be beneficial. E.g. CVD, Neurodegenerative /Neuromuscular
diseases, skin health, diabetes, cancer, COPD, asthma, migraine, immune
disorders , HIV/AIDS, renal problems, periodontal disease, CFS, and male
Health Benefits of CoQ10
Every cell makes CoQ10, so why are many are
deficient in it?
It is believed that as many as 75% of men and
women over age 50 are deficient in CoQ10
The body’s natural ability
to produce CoQ10 decreases by up to 80% with age - starting around 25 years and accelerating after 40;
As we age the body is less
able to convert CoQ10 to its active form (ubiquinol).
The average diet supplies only a small amount of CoQ10
and is also deficient in its cofactor vitamins
Only small amounts of CoQ10 can be extracted from
food - The best sources
are organ meats (heart, kidney, liver - i.e. tissues with high energy demands);
other good sources are meat, fish/shellfish (especially mackerel, salmon,
sardines), peanuts, soybean, palm, olive, corn, sunflower and peanut oils,
broccoli and spinach. However, a typical diet does not provide enough to
maintain optimal CoQ10 levels. E.g. You would have to eat 1# of sardines, 2# of
beef, or 2 ½ # of peanuts to obtain the equivalent of a 30mg supplement, about
enough to maintain health, but nowhere enough for therapeutic benefit against
Weber C et al.
The coenzyme Q10 content of the average Danish diet. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1997
It takes certain nutrients to make CoQ10 – the body’s synthesis of CoQ10 is a
very complex process requiring certain nutrients. A deficiency of one or
more of these essential components can adversely affect the production of
adequate amounts of CoQ10:
Amino acid TYROSINE
Tyrosine is found in many high protein food
products - such as soy products, chicken,
turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage
cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds.
Tyrosine can also be synthesized in the body from
phenylalanine (rich food sources of this
essential amino acid are curds, milk, cottage cheese, pulses and legumes,
poultry, piyal seeds (Indian), peanuts, pistachios, almonds, leafy vegetables,
and whole grains).
At least seven vitamins
B2, B3, B6, folic acid, B12, C, pantothenic
acid and certain trace minerals, such as selenium -
in particular, dietary B6 (pyridoxine) is notably low in the
elderly and those eating a refined / processed food diet.
Emotional stress depletes body’s CoQ10 –
emotional stress increasing oxidative stress in the
body, which creates oxidants (E.g. free radicals). The body’s CoQ10
supply is depleted when used to neutralize these oxidants.
Cholesterol lowering drugs
Cholesterol lowering drugs greatly reduce
the body's ability to produce CoQ10 -This
is because the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol also produces CoQ10.
Anyone taking statin drugs should be taking supplementary CoQ10.
Beta-Blockers decrease endogenous serum CoQ10
levels - By inhibiting CoQ10-dependent enzymes
Fuke C et al, Coenzyme Q10: A review of essential functions and clinical trials.
US Pharmacist 2000.
Overactive Thyroid depletes CoQ10 -
By increasing thyroid hormone, metabolism is accelerated,
which depletes the CoQ10 supply. Symptoms
of hyperthyroidism include anxiety, bulging eyes, irregular/fast heart rhythm,
irritability, muscle weakness, and weight loss.
The heart is usually the first casualty.
Extreme physical Exertion
Although moderate exercise stimulates the body’s
production of CoQ10, exhaustive, prolonged exercise depletes CoQ10 by using it
up as fuel to support increased activity - Those at risk are weekend warriors and performance athletes.
How is CoQ10 distributed in the tissues?
CoQ10 is present in all tissues in our body
It is associated with lipoproteins
In circulation, 90% of CoQ10 is present in its
(as ubiquinol) - The ratio of oxidized to the reduced
form in blood may serve as a measure of in vivo oxidative stress. Yamashita S,
Yamamoto Y. Simultaneous detection of ubiquinol and ubiquinone in human plasma
as a marker of oxidative stress. Anal Biochem. 1997
Recent studies have shown that the level of
decline in certain disease conditions - such as diabetes, liver
disease, down syndrome, etc. with the result that the ratio of circulating
Ubiquinol to total CoQ10 goes down.
LIM S.C., et al. Oxidative burden in prediabetic and diabetic individuals:
evidence from plasma coenzyme Q10, Diabetic Medicine 2006;
Hasegawa, et al. Daily profile of plasma % CoQ10 level, a biomarker of oxidative
stress, in patients with diabetes manifesting post prandial hyperglycemia, Acta
Yamamoto Y, et al. Plasma Ubiquinone to Ubiquinol ratio in patients with
hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatoma, and in patients treated with percutaneous
transluminal coronary reperfusion, BioFactors, 1999
Concentrations vary from tissue to tissue, but CoQ10 is more concentrated in
with high rates of metabolic activity and
high energy demands
The heart has the highest CoQ10 concentration,
followed by the liver, kidneys, spleen and
The oxidized vs.
reduced forms of CoQ10 (i.e. ubiquinone vs. ubiquinol) also varies from tissue
to tissue - those with high
aerobic activity generally contain higher amounts of ubiquinone (the
Heart muscle is Packed
(~¼ the volume of heart cells) - Heart
expands/contracts 100,000 times/day requiring lots of energy and therefore needs
lots of CoQ10.
Supplementing with CoQ10
There is no RDA or DV for CoQ10
Since it is produced in the body, CoQ10 is not
considered essential - but like
some other nutrients (e.g. taurine, carnitine and choline), it could be called
“conditionally essential” because its endogenous production may not be able to
keep up with the body’s demand. In such situations supplemental CoQ10 is
CoQ10 supplementation is beneficial for the over 40’s,
and those of any age with depleted CoQ10 levels
Both the production of CoQ10 and its conversion
to ubiquinol begin to decline more rapidly around our 40’s and 50’s;
CoQ10 provides a
boost for those of any age with substantially lower CoQ10 levels -
due to factors mentioned above in “Every cell makes CoQ10, but many
are deficient in it, Why?”.
Ubiquinol is the best form of supplemental CoQ10,
Ubquinol is the already converted, active form of
To obtain benefit from CoQ10 for production of cellular energy
and reduction of signs of aging, your body must first convert ubiquinone (the
educed storage form of CoQ10) to its active form ubiquinol. By the age of 40 the
body has become much less efficient at converting ubiquinone to ubiquinol, and
so it is better to directly supplement with ubiquinol.
Ubiquinol remains in your blood stream much
longer than ubiquinone
L, Dallner G. Biochemical, physiological and medical aspects of ubiquinone
function. Biochem Biophys Acta, 1995.
The bioavailability of ubiquinol has been
shown to be higher than that of ubiquinone in both animal and human studies
Miles MV et al, Bioequivalence of
coenzyme Q10 from over the counter supplements. Nutr Res 2002; Zaghloul A-a et
al. Bioavailability assessment of oral coenzyme Q10 formulations in dogs. Drug
develop Ind Pharm 2002.
In a recent trial with human subjects, the
superior bioavailability profile of ubiquinol was clearly demonstrated
et al, Study on safety and bioavailability of ubiquinol (Kaneka QH™) after
single and 4-week multiple oral administration to healthy volunteers. Regul
Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;47:19-28.
The plasma of a healthy human has more than 90%
of CoQ10 as ubiquinol
After a decade of research and development, “Kaneka Nutrients” recently
created the first stabilized, bio-identical supplemental form of Ubiquinol
(called Kaneka QH™)
- through a biological process that ferments natural CoQ10.
Ubiquinol achieves higher elevations of circulating CoQ10 in the bloodstream
with a much smaller dose than when using a ubiquinone CoQ10 supplement.
Daily Dose of Ubiquinol
More serious health conditions require greater
CoQ10 doses. Accumulating
research indicates that the higher the dosage the greater the benefit and that
the only limiting factor on the CoQ10 dosage is the cost, which is not cheap.
Healthy person under 25 –
shouldn’t need to supplement CoQ10 at all, unless they are particularly active
or have a condition causing lowered CoQ10 levels. If supplementing CoQ10, they
should use the ubiquinone form, since
research studies show that
younger people don't absorb ubiquinol as well as older people???.
Healthy person 25-40 - 50mg
Healthy person in 40’s – 100mg
50’s and older / Tired / To prevent heart attack
Very sick –
typically 400mg split into 2 or 3 doses;
Some examples of amounts used in studies: 390 mg dose used in breast
cancer study, 1200 mg dose in
The Kaneka Dosing
Study of Kaneka QH ™
The study measured
total CoQ10 concentration in human plasma for various dosage levels:Total plasma
COQ10 concentration results were as follows:
90mg/day (n=20), 150mg/day (n=20), 300mg/day (n=19)
Began around 0.5 μg/ml for all participants and increased in a dose
Reached over 7 μg/ml at a dose of 300mg/day (~2.5 μg/ml at 90mg
dose and ~3.5 μg/ml at 150 mg dose)
Reached a plateau after about 2 weeks intake for all
Returned to base levels ~12 days after supplementation was stopped
Best taken with a meal containing fat
Works better when taken with a meal - and even better if the meal contains
fat in which to dissolve the CoQ10, and so provide better absorption.
No adverse effects in studies - KanekaQ10 has been tested in dozens of
safety studies up to clinical doses of 3,000 mgs per day, showing no adverse
Boost your body’s own CoQ10 production by supplementing with B6
100mg Vitamin B6 / day
How is the status of CoQ10 assessed?
In humans, plasma or serum CoQ10 concentrations
will serve as a good indicator of status - The best way to assay CoQ10 is by HPLC (high pressure liquid
chromatography) by UV or electrochemical detection.
Plasma CoQ10 may not
always reflect tissue status - localized
deficiencies of CoQ10 may exist such as in the skeletal muscle or myocardial
tissue whilst plasma concentrations may show “normal” values. If biopsy material
is available, tissue CoQ10 analysis can yield more useful information
Steele PE et al, Clinical laboratory
monitoring of coenzyme Q10 use in neurologic and muscular diseases. Am J Clin
Pathol. 2004;121 Suppl:S113-20.
How are the Body’s CoQ10 Levels affected by CoQ10 supplementation?
Normal serum/plasma CoQ10 concentrations - in healthy
people, usually range from 0.5 - 1.0 µg per mL. Total body CoQ10 is estimated at
After oral CoQ10 supplementation -
concentrations reach a maximum after ~6 hours. The time to deplete to
half-maximum concentration is ~34 hours. With the ingestion of high doses of
CoQ10, plasma CoQ10 levels have been found to plateau after a dose of 2400 mg a
Shults CW et al, Pilot trial of high dosages of coenzyme Q10 in patients with
Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2004;
CoQ10 in Skin Care
Mix ubiquinol into cream/lotion at 0.5% concentration
- after first dissolving it in a small amount of oil for
a smooth texture to your finished product.