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Borage,Blackcurrant, Evening Primrose Oil EPO to obtain Omega-6 GLA

Borage, Blackcurrant and Evening Primrose Oils

- For Omega-6 DGLA

Omega-6 DGLA (Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid) is a metabolite of GLA (Gamma-linolenic Acid), which when it resides in the cell membrane, is a precursor to both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory eicosonoids in the cell's immediate locale (i.e. prostaglandin PGE2 and leukotriene LK-4 series via omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA), and the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin series PGE1

Local "Hormones"–“First Response Team”- Affect pain/ inflammation, muscles, blood pressure, clotting . . .

–   Effects of the anti-inflammatory PGE1:


✔ Reduce inflammation and pain

✔ Reduce blood pressure

✔ Relax muscles /dilate blood vessels / control uterine contractions

✔ Improve immune response

✔ Reduce blood stickiness

✔ Regulate nerve impulses, body temperature and fluid levels

–   GLA supplementation has been shown to have a favorable effect on the DGLA:AA ratio AA increase is smaller compared to increase in DGLA, meaning less of the inflammatory PGE2 and LK-4 and more of the anti-inflammatory PGE1:


Omega-6 DGLA is only directly available in mother's milk

–   For those of us who are no longer obtaining milk from our mothers, DGLA can be obtained by supplementing with GLA fatty acids – found in quantity in evening primrose, borage and blackcurrant oils; GLA is easily converted to DGLA in the body

Omega-6 GLA is not found in high levels in the diet and some people can not efficiently convert Omega-6 DGLA (obtained from such as vegetable oils, nuts and seeds) to derivative GLA in the step requiring the hepatic Δ6D enzyme

–   GLA supplementation thus compensates for the lack of GLA in those with impaired Δ6D activity

Inhibitors of Conversion Enzymes for Omega-3 ALA and Omega-6 LA Fatty Acids


Omega-6 GLA supplementation should not be given untilOmega-3 deficiency has been dealt with

–   Until Omega-3 levels have been increased, supplementing GLA will make the imbalance worse in a probably already oversupplied Omega-6 diet - If cancer is present, this is especially important, because Omega-6 enhances tumor growth, and Omega-3 suppresses growth.


In most cases, Omega-3 supplementation has shown equally effective to supplementing Omega-6

–   In extensive, controlled, hospital /clinic, double-blind studies world-wide - results have been compared between Omega-3 and Omega-6 supplementation for many problems and diseases.


–   Omega-3 has shown equally effective results in most problems, except PMS and Sjogren's syndrome - according to Dr. Udo ErasmusPh.D, renowned expert on dietary fatsand author of “Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill”

Supplementation of GLA–   containing oils is best used for relief of:

–   Premenstrual breast pain and premenstrual syndrome symptoms - bloating, irritability, depression;


–   Sjogren's syndrome - drying/atrophy of tear/salivary glands;





600 mg. GLA / day

up to max 3g / day

Oils must be organic, cold-pressed, and unrefined



(3/4 tsp. provides 345mg GLA / day)


(1000mg capsule provides ~ 200mg GLA).

Unrefined BSO is hard to find

BORAGE OIL (BO) - is ~20-25% GLA

(1000mg capsule provides ~ 230mg GLA,

¼tsp. provides ~ 280mg GLA).

Warning - Drug interaction: Omega-6 supplementation may increase the risk of temporal lobe epilepsy in schizophrenic patients taking phenothiazine epileptogenic drugs.

For specific details on how to supplement and obtain EFAs, including Omega-6 DGLA:



Information, uses and effective dosages of GLA-containing oils

Borage Oil

Reports that Borage seed oil contains toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been found to be false - these problematic compounds have limited the use of comfrey leaves, however, they are only present in the leaves and flowers of the borage plant, and in much lower amounts than in comfrey.

Shelf life ~ 6 months – courtesy of the oil's inherent 400 ppm tocopherols combined with the anti-oxidant ferulic acid;

Skin applications

–   20% borage oil reverses hyperproliferation (skin cells regenerate too fast) better than EPO – and increases ceramide synthesis in guinea pigs

–   Borage oil NOT shown effective for eczema

Borage oil helps hydrate elderly skin

Evening Primrose Oil

EPO helpful for:

✔ Atopic eczema - 6-8g EPO/day, may not be effective topically

✔ Cyclic and non-cyclic mastalgia (breast pain) - 3-4g EPO/day

✔ PMS, psoriasis, M.S.

✔ Hypercholesterolemia –2-3 g GLA/day

✔ Rheumatoid arthritis - 3g GLA /day

✔ Raynaud's phenomenon

✔ Sjogren's Syndrome

✔ Asthma

✔ Diabetic neuropathy

Results seen after 3-4 months

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