Sucralose / Splenda - Organochlorine
- Toxic organochlorine in a yellow packet
On this Page:
from sugar so it tastes like sugar”
- “One lump or two?”
Is sucralose absorbed / metabolized or not?
been tested, right?
Mercola’s website lists many anecdotal reports of harmful side-effects
the “Kicker” – Artificial sweeteners may actually
promote weight gain
of U.S. population using artificial sweeteners is increasing
are my other sweetener choices?
to reduce sugar intake
to overcome sweet cravings
Although, using natural sugar to excess has its own set of health problems,
natural sugar used in moderation is still a healthier sweetener choice than
”Made from sugar so it tastes like sugar”
Sucralose (trade name Splenda
additive code E955)
is the #1 artificial sweetener in the U.S. -
generally used as a sugar substitute
Sucralose is a non-nutritive sweetener
(NNS) - a white crystalline powder, this
supposedly no-calorie sweetener
Is made from a patented process that
begins with sucrose
times sweeter than table sugar - ~twice
as sweet as saccharin and four times sweeter than aspartame
Found in > 4,500 food and beverage products -
such as baked goods (stable to 450⁰F), non-alcoholic beverages, chewing gum,
frozen dairy desserts, fruit juices, and gelatins
nearly 10% of all sucralose is sold to drug companies, and many times
not listed on label.
also contains 95% dextrose and maltodextrin as fillers
Sucralose is a synthetic chemical made by a
patented process by McNeil Nutritionals that does indeed begin with sugar
(sucrose, a disaccharide molecule about 50/50 glucose and fructose). Three
hydroxyl (OH) groups are
replaced with 3 chlorine molecules, producing
a fructose + galactose molecule not seen in nature.
Image from Splenda-Clinician’s Guide @
Here is the
“Recipe” for making sucralose:
Sucrose is tritylated with trityl chloride in the
presence of dimethylformamide and 4-methylmorpholine, and the tritylated sucrose
is then acetylated with acetic anhydride.
The resulting sucrose molecule TRISPA is
chlorinated with hydrogen chlorine in the presence of toluene.
The resulting 4-PAS is heated in the presence of
methyl isobutyl ketone and acetic acid.
The resulting 6-PAS is chlorinated with thionyl
chloride in the presence of toluene and benzyltriethylammonium chloride.
The resulting TOSPA is treated with methanol in
the presence of sodium methoxide to produce sucralose.
Ahhhh… just the way grandma used to make it!
The end product is a
chlorinated hydrocarbon molecule (a.k.a. an organochlorine or
chlorocarbon) – i.e.
NOT a sugar molecule.
Sucralose was actually discovered by accident by
Tate and Lyle scientists working with researchers at Queen Elizabeth
College, trying to create
new insecticides -
it was discovered by Leslie Hough
and a young Indian chemist, Shashikant Phadnis as the duo was trying to test
chlorinated sugars as chemical intermediates.
told to test the powder.
Phadnis thought that Hough asked him to taste it
- he found the compound to be exceptionally sweet. After
this revelation, they worked with Tate & Lyle for a year before settling on the
In 1980 the rights of sucralose were sold to
Johnson and Johnson who then created McNeil Nutritionals to be solely
responsible for the marketing of Splenda® -
Later in 2004, McNeil Nutritionals and Tate & Lyle restructured their alliance
so that McNeil was responsible for marketing and Tate & Lyle for manufacturing
In 1989, sucralose was approved for use in the United States and Diet R.C. Cola
was the first product to contain it
Chlorocarbons - “One lump or two?”
Sucralose is a cute short name for:
Chlorine in sucralose is not the same safe form
as covalent chloride bonds in food –
contains NO covalent chloride-to-organic
Examples of other
(long known for causing organ, genetic and reproductive
J & J maintain that sucralose chlorocarbons are
not a problem since sucralose is not absorbed – however, the fact
is that the final rule of the FDA was that a
significant percentage actually is absorbed in the body.
Organochlorines don't breakdown easily in fatty
tissue and can build up over time - in his book “Sweet Deception”,
Dr. Joseph Mercola details how
researchers found evidence that
Splenda is in fact absorbed by your fat and tends to accumulate in high-fat
organ tissues (E.g. your brain)
Researcher / biochemist Dr.
James Bowen states that ingested chlorocarbon damage continues with the
formation of other toxins:
"Any chlorocarbons not directly
excreted from the body intact can cause immense damage to the processes of human
metabolism and, eventually, our internal organs. The liver is a detoxification
organ which deals with ingested poisons.
Chlorocarbons damage the hepatocytes, the liver's metabolic cells, and
destroy them. In test animals, Splenda® produced swollen livers, as do
all chlorocarbon poisons, and also calcified the kidneys of test animals in
toxicity studies. The brain and nervous system are highly subject to metabolic
toxicities and solvency damage by these chemicals. Their high solvency attacks
the human nervous system and many other body systems including genetics and the
immune function. Thus, chlorocarbon poisoning can cause cancer, birth defects,
and immune system destruction. These are well known effects of Dioxin and PCBs
which are known deadly chlorocarbons."
Dr. James Bowen, Article: “The
Lethal Science Of Splenda - A Poisonous Chlorocarbon”
Ingested sucralose breaks down into products
4-chloro-4-deoxygalactose andpotentially highly toxic chlorosugar 6-GC)
and has been proven in tests to to be able to have the following adverse
toxicity, Enlarged livers
ability for body to detoxify
DNA in your liver and small intestine
Low birth and placental weights, maternal and
fetal toxicity (aborted pregnancy)
Shrunken thymus glands
(up to 40% shrinkage)
Abnormal histopathological changes in
spleen and thymus
Increased cecal weight
Reduced growth rate
Adverse changes to GI bacteria
Pelvic Mineralization / Hyperplasia of the pelvis
Decreased red blood cell count
Bowel inflammation/Crohn’s Disease
Increased glycosylation of hemoglobin
(HbA1c) for diabetics
Is sucralose absorbed / metabolized or not?
claims that Splenda® has zero calories since it is not absorbed by the
body – because the body has no enzymes to break down /digest this
unnatural, glucose-free molecule.
HOWEVER - The FDA's
"Final Rule" reported 11% to 27% of sucralose is absorbed in humans:
studies, up to 15% of sucralose is absorbed by the digestive system and stored
in the body
- The bulk of sucralose ingested does not leave the GI tract and is
directly excreted in the feces while 11-27% of it is absorbed. The amount that
is absorbed from the GI tract is largely removed from the blood stream by the
kidneys and excreted in the urine with 20-30% of the absorbed sucralose being
Significant percentages of absorbed sucralose is
metabolized – “Mice
(El46) and rats (El37) were found to metabolize less than 10 percent of the
absorbed sucralose, while rabbits(El24) (20 to 30 percent), humans (El38 and
E145) (20 to 30 percent), and dogs (El33) (30 to 40 percent) metabolize greater
quantities of the absorbed sucralose.”
Michael A. Friedman, Lead Deputy Commissioner for the FDA, Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition
to Food for Human Consumption; Sucralose Federal Register: 21 CFR Part 172, Docket No. 87F-0086,
April 3, 1998
The Japanese Food Sanitation Council reports that
up to 40% of ingested sucralose is absorbed - and
can concentrate in the liver, kidney, and GI tract
The FDA allowed sucralose
absorption / metabolism findings of just ONE 8
man study to be generalized to the entire population
women, children, the elderly, and those with any chronic illness were never
Sucralose metabolism and pharmacokinetics in man.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38 Suppl 2:S31-41.
It’s been tested, right?
Splenda has NEVER been proven safe for HUMAN consumption!
The marketing pitch for
Spenda emphasizes that it has undergone rigorous testing, but fail
to mention that nearly all tests were on animals (initial
studies showing health detrimental results)
and only 2
small (almost laughable)
studies lasting less than 4 days on humans prior to FDA approval
Initially, the EU Food Commision, Canadian
officials and the U.S. FDA did NOT
approve Splenda, based on several
serious health problems revealed in animals –
so McNeil Nutritionals (Sucralose
manufacturer, a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson) continued their research
studies, lowering levels of sucralose administered until favorable results were
obtained. Of course, the negative research results were not mentioned.
Splenda®/Sucralose was given the broadest
approval ever granted by the FDA for any food additive
based on the review of of 108 animal
studies and only two human studies lasting only a few days –
in 1998 it was approved for use
in 15 food and beverage categories, with no requirement for warnings or informational labels on products containing
sucralose. A year or so later, the FDA approved sucralose as a general-purpose
Of those 2 human studies:
They had a total of only 36 subjects –
of which only 23 took sucralose!
The longest study lasted only 4 days! –
and was focussed on sucralose in relation to
tooth decay, not human tolerance
The animal studies reviewed revealed several
red blood cells at levels above 1,500 mg/kg/day
male infertility by interfering with sperm production and vitality, as well as
brain lesions at higher doses
and calcified kidneys -
The FDA ruled that these are findings that are common in
aged female rats and are not significant
Spontaneous abortions in nearly half the
rabbit population given sucralose -
compared to zero aborted pregnancies in the control group
percent death rate in rabbits -
compared to a 6 percent death rate in the control group
A more recent Duke University study found that
FDA-approved food levels of Splenda:
REDUCES the amount of good bacteria in your
intestines by 50% -- a disturbing finding since
these bacteria help maintain your body's overall balance of friendly versus
unfriendly microorganisms and support your general health.
INCREASES the pH level in your intestines
Can prevent absorption of prescription drugs –
by affecting a glycoprotein (P-gp) in your body
Abou-Donia MB, El-Masry EM, Abdel-Rahman AA, McLendon RE, Schiffman SS.
Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and
cytochrome p-450 in male rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(21):1415-29.
suggests that artificial sweeteners do not activate the food reward pathways in
the same fashion as natural sweeteners - Lack of caloric contribution
generally eliminates the postingestive component. Functional magnetic imaging in
normal weight men showed that glucose ingestion resulted in a prolonged signal
depression in the hypothalamus. This response was not observed with sucralose
Smeets PAM, de Graaf C, Stafleu A, van Osch MJP, van der Grond J. Functional
magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and
calories. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:1011–1016.
Dr. Mercola’s website lists many anecdotal reports of harmful side-effects
Dr. Mercola’s website
The following are common symptoms - usually noticed within a 24-hour period following consumption of Splenda
Skin - Redness,
itching, swelling, blistering, weeping, crusting, rash, eruptions, or hives
(itchy bumps or welts).
Wheezing, tightness, cough, or shortness of breath.
Head - Swelling
of the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, or throat; headaches and migraines
Stuffy nose, runny nose,
bloodshot, itchy, swollen, or watery.
Bloating, gas, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or bloody diarrhea.
Palpitations or fluttering.
Joints - Joint
pains or aches.
Neurological - Anxiety, dizziness, spaced-out sensation, depression.
Here’s the “Kicker” – Artificial sweeteners may actually
Many people have found that it is easier to lose weight by cutting out sweets
altogether instead of just replacing the natural sugar with an artificial one
Several large scale prospective cohort studies
found a positive correlation between artificial sweetener use and weight gain
Qing Yang. Gain weight by “going diet?”
Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings. Neuroscience
Yale J Biol Med.
Antonio Heart Study
3,682 adults over 7-8 yrs during 1980’s
higher BMIs at the follow-up - Average BMI gain
was +1.01 kg/m2 for control and 1.78 kg/m2 for people in
the third quartile for artificially sweetened beverage consumption.
Participants who drank more than 21 diet drinks
per week were
twice as likely to become overweight or obese as people who didn’t drink
Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Fueling the
obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain.
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2008;16:1894–1900.
The American Cancer Society study
78,694 women in early 80’s
At one-year follow-up, 2.7 to 7.1 % more regular
artificial sweetener users gained weight (although <2#) compared to non-users
matched by initial weight.
Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Artificial sweetener use and one-year weight change
among women. Prev Med. 1986;15:195–202.
Another American Cancer Society study
use was also associated with eight-year weight gain in 31,940 women from the
Nurses’ Health Study conducted in the 1970s
Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, London SJ, Segal MR, Speizer FE. Patterns
of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:1100–1105.
Diet soda consumption in children associated with increased weight
166 school children over 2 years
Higher BMI Z-scores
(indicating weight gain) found at follow-up
Blum JW, Jacobsen DJ, Donnelly JE. Beverage consumption patterns in elementary
school aged children across a two-year period. J Am
Coll Nutr. 2005;24:93–98.
Growing Up Today Study reported diet soda
consumption by boys (but not girls)
associated with weight gain
11,654 children aged 9 to 14
Each daily serving of diet beverage increased BMI
by 0.16 kg/m2
Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Field AE, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. Sugar-added beverages
and adolescent weight change. Obes Res. 2004;12:778–788.
A cross-sectional study of
young people found diet soda drinkers had significantly elevated BMI
children and youth
Forshee RA, Storey ML. Total beverage consumption and beverage choices among
children and adolescents. Int J Food Sci Nutr.
suggests that artificial sweeteners do not help reduce weight when used alone
Mattes RD, Popkin BM. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on
appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1–14.
PMC free article
Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI. Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of
metabolic effects in youth. [Epub 18 Jan 2010];Int J
BMI did not decrease after 25 weeks of
substituting diet beverages for sugar-sweetened beverages in 103 adolescents in
a randomized controlled trial, except among the heaviest participants
Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, Chomitz VR, Ellenbogen SJ, Ludwig DS.
Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in
adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study.
Earlier studies indicated that consuming
non-caloric artificial sweeteners induce hunger by causing us to lose control of
normal appetite mechanisms - they:
Stimulate your appetite
Increase carbohydrate cravings –
with a tendency to choose sweet foods over
Stimulate fat storage and weight gain
This phenomenon was later found to be more
general, in that any orally palatable substance without calories stimulates the
appetite. Phenomenon does not occur
without orosensory stimulation (E.g. via capsules)
Mattes RD. Interaction between the energy content and
sensory properties of foods. Birch G, Campbell-Platt G, editors. , eds
Synergy. Hampshire, United Kingdom: Intercept,
One study fed rats yogurt sweetened with
saccharin, aspartame or sucrose for 12 weeks + normal rat food
Rats fed zero
calorie artifical sweeteners had increased weight gain compared to sucrose fed
rats – since the no-cal sweeteners
caused them to increase their appetites for normal food
Fernanda de Matos Feijó et al, Saccharin
and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar
rats, at similar total caloric intake levels Appetite January 1, 2012, Volume
60, Pages 203-207
Rat feeding study found that breaking the link
between the sweet taste of saccharin and the anticipated high calorie food
changed the body's ability to control food intake.
Rats were fed
either saccharin- or glucose sweetened yogurt
The rats that
had the saccharin-sweetened yogurt consumed more calories, put on more weight,
gained more body fat, and did not cut back on their calorie consumption in the
Swithers SE, Davidson TL. A role for sweet taste: calorie
predictive relations in energy regulation by rats.
Behav Neurosci. 2008;122:161–173.
Another study fed rats sucralose and at the end
of the 24 week study, the rats consuming sucralose gained weight compared to the
ones that didn’t.
Qing Yang. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the
neurobiology of sugar cravings.Neuroscience 2010.
Yale J Biol Med.
More recent studies indicate that
when no-calorie artificial sweeteners
are added to caloric products,
the augmented hunger does not take
Richard D Mattes and Barry M Popkin. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in
humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms1,2,3
Am J Clin Nutr.
Substitution of artificial sweeteners for sugars
in drink prevents weight gain and promotes weight loss in rats eating
food ad libitum -
In a 16 week study, 81
rats eating food at will gained the same weight as controls when also
drinking saccharin solution, but
gained significant weight drinking 11% sucrose
solution. When the sweetened solutions were switched, obese sucrose rats
lost weight during the next 8 weeks while rats previously on saccharin gained
weight rapidly. However,
it is fairly obvious that weight gain/loss would occur if adding/removing extra
Porikos KP, Koopmans HS. The effect of non-nutritive sweeteners on body weight
in rats.Appetite. 1988;11 Suppl 1:12-5.
Percentage of U.S. population using artificial sweeteners is increasing
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 January; 89(1): 1–14.
What are my other sweetener choices?
Natural sweeteners in moderation should be
preferred to any artificial sweeteners