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GSE MEALTONIN - The Darkness Hormone - Body's Natural Sleep Aid

MELATONIN - The Darkness Hormone / Natural Sleep aid


MELATONIN is a hormone and a neurotransmitter, produced /secreted by the pineal gland (pea-sized gland located in the center of the brain) during darkness under control of the body's master “Biological Clock” (Body's central circadian pacemaker / Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus)

–   The master biological clock (SCN) generates a circadian and annual rhythm of MELATONIN

✔ During darkness the SCN stimulates the release of Norepinephrine(NE) (from superior cervical ganglion), which activates MELATONIN secretionMELATONIN production is inhibited by light.

✔  MELATONIN Production

✔  MELATONIN peaks in the middle of the night – and then gradually falls during the second half of the night

✔  MELATONIN is not stored in the pineal gland - activated by darkness, MELATONIN leaves the pineal cells through simple diffusion into the bloodstream. We cannot rely on yesterday's MELATONIN for today and so need a liberal supply each evening

✔  MELATONIN production peaks at puberty - then levels rapidly decline until middle-age, continuing the decline until almost negligible in the over 60's

MELATONIN can also be produced directly by the retina, lens, GI tract, skin and other tissues/cells (E.g. bone marrow cells, lymphocytes and epithelial cells are not regulated by light/dark) these cells do not directly release MELATONIN into the blood, but act on local target cells (i.e. by paracrine action).

–    MELATONIN produced by enterochromaffin cells of the GI mucosa represents the most important extra-pineal source of MELATONIN–    the GI tract secretes ~400 times the amount of the pineal gland. This MELATONIN enters circulation, where it has an indirect, but profound, protective effect on the GI tract and organs via the brain-gut axis.

✔  MELATONIN affects GI motility, is protective of duodenal epithelium and pancreas, prevents GERD and ulcers, and much more

MELATONIN Production

MELATONIN is both lipid and water soluble – which facilitates passage both in the blood and across cell membranes.After release into circulation, it gains access to various fluids, tissues and cellular compartments (E.g. saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, pre-ovulatory follicle, semen, amniotic fluid, milk). MELATONIN is rapidly metabolized (chiefly in the liver) and is excreted in the urine.

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