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GSE
GSE MELATONIN Production

MELATONIN Production

What affects MELATONIN Production?

MELATONIN Production

/Secretion

Promoted by:

Darkness

Vitamins B6, B12, folate (synthesis cofactors of SAMe)

Vitamin B3

Acetyl carnitine –acetylated form of L-carnitine;

Hypoglycemia

Tryptophan - MELATONIN's protein amino acid precursor

SSRIs (anti-depressants)

Exercise (except late evening exercise - see below)

Inhibited by:

Light MELATONIN production lowered by blue light;

Age – MELATONIN production decreases with age

Fluoride - MELATONIN production lowered by fluoride

Alcohol;

Caffeine;

Late evening exercise - during MELATONIN rising phase;

Estrogen - Direct exposure to ESTRADIOL reduced α1 / β-adrenoceptor-induced stimulation of MELATONIN synthesis and release.

NSAIDS (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatoru drugs) –E.g. aspirin, Ibuprofen;

Beta blockers –keep MELATONINlevels from rising naturally at night;

B-blockers –Like leaving the light on all night

Calcium-channel blockers;

Diuretics;

Benzodiazepines –E.g. Anti-anxiety drugs Xanax and Valium.

Pineal/Retinal MELATONIN production

Inhibited by light and Permitted by darkness

Light/dark MELATONIN production

Anti-anxiety drugs suppress MELATONIN

Valium and Xanax (benzodiazepine drugs) shown to suppress MELATONINand disrupt sleep patterns in humans and rodents - both cause decreased production of MELATONIN at night. In a study from the Niigata College of Pharmacy in Japan, Valium also inhibited N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT), enzymes necessary for MELATONIN synthesis in the pineal gland.

MELATONIN Synthesis Pathway

MELATONIN production decreases with age

Fetal / Baby MELATONIN Levels

Early in pregnancy – MELATONIN-binding sites are created in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus of the developing brain. Maternal MELATONIN crosses the placenta and can synchronize the fetal biological clock. Daily MELATONIN rhythm in milk could take over for newborn.

Shortly after birth - very little MELATONIN is detectable in body fluids, and although the circadian rhythm of MELATONIN does not exist at birth, it appears at 9-12 weeks of age and is fully established by 5-6 months of age.

Young child - Nighttime levels reach a peak in children between on average 3 to 5 (another source says 1-3) years of age (may explain their tendency to sleep longer than adults) and decrease steadily throughout puberty. The abundant MELATONIN levels in children are believed to inhibit sexual development.

Puberty - By the end of puberty, peak MELATONIN levels have decreased significantly.

Adult - Levels continue to fall steadily throughout adult life.

Old age - Lower levels are seen in old age.

Circadian profiles of serum MELATONIN concentrations at various ages

Gray area—darkness.

MELATONIN production lowered by blue light

Dr. George Brainard experimented on 600 healthy volunteers

–   Blue light significantly loweredMELATONINproduction - Studies at 2:00 am (when MELATONIN levels at peak)exposed dilated pupils to different wavelengths of monochromatic light (only one color) over 90 minutes, found that the short wavelength in the blue portion of the visible spectrum was most potent at lowering MELATONIN production.

–   Special retinal photoreceptor regulatesMELATONINproduction –it was revealed that it is not the visual rod and cone photoreceptor mechanism of the eye that is regulating pineal MELATONIN production, but that a novel photoreceptor in the retina was responsible. Only 0.5-1.7 foot-candles of blue-green light (509nm) and 10 foot-candles of broad-band white light can lower MELATONIN production under tightly controlled exposure conditions.

MELATONIN production lowered by fluoride

The pineal gland calcifies over time as a consequence of incorporating fluoride - During the late 1990's, scientist Jennifer Luke of the University of Surrey, England, was the first to study of the effects of sodium fluoride on the pineal gland. She determined that the pineal gland was a target for fluoride, absorbing more fluoride than any other physical matter in the body, even bones. The pineal gland is unique in that it can be classified as a soft or as a mineralizing tissue.

The result of 50 years of prophylactic fluorides in dentistry is that the aged pineal contains more fluoride than any other normal soft tissue - significantly higher than in muscle. In terms of mineralized tissue, the mean fluoride concentration in the pineal calcification was equivalent to that in severely fluorosed bone and more than 4x higher than in corresponding bone ash,

Given the pineal gland's importance to the endocrine system, its calcification would block endocrine activity - providing an explanation of the physiological damage caused by sodium fluoride. Fortunately, a fluoride calcified pineal gland can be stimulated by frequent exposure to outdoor sunshine, 20 minutes or so at a time.

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