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GSE Enzymes affecting steroid production

Enzymes Affecting Steroid production  /Activity

About

Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

At a Glance Chart

Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

The conversion of one hormone to another is catalyzed by a certain enzyme - as depicted in the rectangular boxes in the following steroid conversion chart.

The level of an enzyme presence in a particular body tissue determines the extent to which the hormone conversion will take place - The amount of a certain hormone in particular areas is a critical factor affecting hormonally related health concerns.

 

Steroid conversion chart

(conversion enzymes are shown in rectangular boxes)

At a Glance Chart

Enzymes affecting Steroid Production/Activity and Conversion Pathways

Enzyme

Converts

Prod'n /Activity

/ Conversion

Pathway

▲  increased by

Prod'n /Activity

/Conversion Pathway

▼  decreased by

Comments

P450SCC

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme;

Cholesterol

➔ PREGNENOLONE

(in mitochondria);

LH

Estrogens;

Lead;

Vitamin A deficiency;

Certain drugs

Series of reactions occur at the inner membrane;

P450 C17-20

(17α-hydroxylase)

LH

TESTOSTERONE

(affects cAMP pathway)

Ethanol;

Nicotine;

Certain drugs

Catalyzes hydroxylation and cleavage (converts steroids from a 21-carbon to a 19-carbon molecule in Δ4 and Δ5- hydroxysteroid pathways);

17ß-HSD

(17ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

DHEA

➔  ANDROSTENEDIOL

ANDROSTENEDIONE

 TESTOSTERONE

ESTRONE (E1)

➔  ESTRADIOL (E2)

Drugs: Cotinine, Danazol, Cyclosporin A, Lithium chloride.

Lignans (E.g. in flaxseed)

Lignans – Enterolactones (lignan precursors) found in E.g.flaxseed inhibit

3ß-HSD

(3ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

PREGNENOLONE

➔  PROGESTERONE

DHEA

➔  ANDROSTENEDIONE

LH

FSH via LH

TESTOSTERONE

Lead;

Daidzein

/genistein

/biochanin A (isoflavones), Aflatoxin

In the male, FSH, stimulates release of a Sertoli cell factor that increasesLH effect on 3ß-HSD activity;

5AR

(5α-Reductase)

TESTOSTERONE➔  DIHYDRO-TESTOSTERONE (DHT)

In testes, liver, brain, prostate, external genitalia, skin, hair follicles and sebaceous glands;

DHT more potent than TESTOSTERONE;

DHT involved in BPH,prostate cancer, hirsutism

Aromatase

TESTOSTERONE

➔  ESTRADIOL

ANDROSTENEDIONE

➔  ESTRONE

(in females)

Gonadotropins (E.g. FSH, LH, hCG);

Age;

Obesity;

Insulin;

Alcohol.

PROLACTIN

Smoking;

Anti-mullerian hormone

Certain Drugs

Finasteride; PROGESTERONE

Nettle root

Flavonoids

In females, FSH increases aromatase activity, enhancing this conversion;

Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) - blocks conversion of:

PREGNENOLONE ➔  PROGESTERONE ;

Dioxins (in fatty meats, dairy) ➔  low TESTOSTERONE, and limited prostate growth;

Aminoglutethimide ➔ low TESTOSTERONE;

Lead, cadmium ➔  low TESTOSTERONE;

Cyclic-AMP Second Messenger System- C-AMP pathway directly affected by:

✔ Biphenol-A (BPA);

✔ Nicotine;

✔ Nitrate/NO;

✔ Glucocorticoids;

✔ Drugs - Lindane; Indmethacin. Chloroquine. EDS. DBA, Cotinine, Tylosin, Gossypol;

Nitrous oxide (NO) - blocks steroid production;?????

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