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INFLAMMATION INFORMATION -Chronic Low Level Inflammation

Inflammation Information

ACUTE inflammation

Necessary for survival, and is the immune system's immediate response to infection or injury

 

Without inflammation, infections (incl. bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic) would go unchecked and wounds (E.g.trauma, surgery, burns, damage inflicted by a saber tooth tiger!)would never heal

As part of the innate immune system (I.S.)

(General “Soldiers”- 1st line of defense against invading organisms)

INNATE immunity – initial response nonspecific to antigen (nonself, stimulates immune response) immediately or within several hours after exposure to microbe

Chemicals released to cause inflammation attract white blood cells called phagocytes(E.g. macrophages and neutrophils) - which engulf foreign particles (E.g. chemicals, particulate matter), bacteria, parasites, dead/dying body cells and debris; being messy “eaters”, macrophages “burp up”fragments of their “meal”that alert other I.S. cells to join the fight and they also produce chemicals to kill microbes;

–   Different methods are employed to kill microbes - intracellularly, phagocyte oxygen consumption increases in a so-called “respiratory burst”, which produces anti-microbial ROS:Singlet oxygen, Hydroxyl radical and Hypochlorite; extracellularly, nitric oxideis used against bacteria; some of these oxidants leak into and damage surrounding tissue, causing more inflammation, especially if the “battle “goes on for too long;

 

–   Tumor Necrosis Factor-É‘ (secreted by activated macrophages) is used to destroyvirally infected cells/cancer cells:

 

–   Pus - is a combination of dead tissue, dead bacteria, and live and dead phagocytes.

Macrophages “Dealing with”a parasite

Macrophage “eating”carbon particles in particulate matter

(The black material is inhaled carbon in sputum induced from a healthy child's lung)

The damaged/infected site becomes red, swollen and warm, with possible loss of function - as healing mechanisms are initiated.

Eventually any damage is repaired - fibroblasts manufacture the extracellular matrix (ECM) and collagen to repair damaged connective tissue (admittedly sometimes leaving a scar);

Acute inflammation response is designed to work best in a well-nourished person with a mild to moderate injury /infection over a short period of time – response usually occurs within minutes to hours, and the problem is often fixed in a few days;

As part of the adaptive immune system (I.S.)

(Specialized “Troops”2nd line of defense and protection against re-infection by same pathogen)

HUMORAL immunity – involves production of antibodies in response to an antigen and is mediated by B-lymphocytes

CELL-MEDIATED immunity - involves production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, activated macrophages, activated NK cells, and cytokines in response to an antigen and is mediated by T-lymphocytes

Macrophages call in the lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells) - these are mobilized to find the non-self invader (called an antigen);

✔ T-cells - identify and eliminate antigens.

✔ B-cells - produce specific antibodies (think of them as flags) to attach to a specific antigen to identify it as a marked target for destruction by cytotoxic T-cells(Natural killer T-cells / NKT). Note, these are distinct from Natural Killer (NK) cells of innate immunity;

✔ Helper T-cells - signal B-cells to multiply to strengthen attack force;

✔ Suppressor T-cells - down-regulate other I.S. responses;

For more detailed information:

INFLAMMATION PROCESS

Inflammation Links

INFLAMMATION Related Links

ABOUT

INFLAMMATION INFORMATION

- Can't Live with it, Can't Live without it!

- Acute Inflammation

- Chronic Low-Level Inflammation

Chronic Low-level Inflammation is a common factor in most health problems

INFLAMMATION PROCESS

About inflammation Process

–    Inflammation "Players"
–    Mechanism of ACUTE inflammatory Phase

–   Detailedinflammation process

CAUSES

Causes of Chronic Low-level Inflammation

Stress, Toxins, Damaged Fats, Microbes and NOT Enough Antioxidants

Too Many Inflammatory Fats . NOT Enough ANTI-Inflammatory Fats

Too Much Sugar/HFCS and Other Refined carbohydrates

Too Much Meat & Dairy / NOT Enough B-Vitamins

NOT Enough Alkaline-Forming Foods

RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS

Health Problems linked with chronic low-level inflammation

TREATMENT

INFLAMMATION MEDICATION

- Short-term Relief and Long-term, Natural Solutions

- Short-Term Relief

–    Long-Term Solutions