Heal Yourself At Home
DIY SOLUTIONS FOR YOUR HEALTH
Body's Enzymatic Antioxidants

(1)  Enzymatic Antioxidants

 

(Biochemical enzyme catalysts, found in organisms' healthy cells)

 

      Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) -  this water-soluble enzyme needs  Manganese, Zinc, Copper (marginal to deficient in US diet), depending on location (Zinc-Copper SOD in the cytosol, Manganese SOD in the mitochondria.

 

         Removes the Superoxide Radical (source of H2O2 and OH) – by catalyzing the dismutation of O2 into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide

 

O2  +  O2

O2   +  H2O2

 

Mn/ZnCu-SOD

 

 

         Concentration of SOD in mammals is directly proportional to their life span

 

         Found in the cells' cytoplasm and mitochondria (energy factory)       

    

      Catalase (CAT) found in membranes of eukaryotic cells (thus not in bacteria); Requires Iron to function

 

         Catalyze decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2 ) to oxygen and water

 

2 H2O2

O2   + 2 H2O

 

CAT

 

 

         Highly reactive enzyme found in peroxisomes (cellular organelles containing enzymes)  

 

      Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx)  - Contains and Requires Selenium to function; actually a family of 8 isoforms: Gpx1 (in cytoplasm of  most all mammalian cells), GPx2 (intestines)  - -  -    GPx8, each found in specific areas of the body)

 

-       Two main functions (in reactions requiring glutathione (GSH)):

 

         Catalyze reduction of lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH)  to their corresponding alcohols

 

2GSH + ROOH

GS-SG            +        ROH   +  H2O

 

GPx

Glutathione disulfide      Alcohol

 

 

 

         Catalyze reduction of free Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) (source of hydroxyl radicals) to water - H2O2 is the preferred substrate of GPx1

 

2GSH + H2O2

GS-SG             +    2 H2O

 

GPx

Glutathione disulfide           

 

 

Without GPx or CAT to remove Hydrogen peroxide, SOD is of little value.

To deal with specific problems, such as wound healing, the body produces H2O2, which must then be removed from where it is not needed, to prevent damage.

AOX - ROS Related Links

ANTIOXIDANT / OXIDANT  BALANCE  Related Links

Health is a Balancing Act Between OXIDANTS and ANTIOXIDANTS 

-   A Powerful bioxidative tool

LIFE'S OXYGEN PARADOX

- Meet Dr. ROS Jeckyll

              and Mr. ROS Hyde

•   Dr. ROS Jeckyll

•   Mr. ROS Hyde

-   Where do Body’s ROS Come From?

 

 Ÿ•     ROS Chart

-   Antioxidants - Oxidant Damage Control

 

•    ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS

•    NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS