Heal Yourself At Home
DIY SOLUTIONS FOR YOUR HEALTH
~~~ Please read disclaimer at foot of page. NOTHING for sale on this site ~~~
HOME PAGE
WHY THE HEALTH PROBLEMS
HOW TO RESTORE HEALTH
(1) Clean Body's Cleaning Organs
(2) NEWSTARTS
- - "N" = Nutrition
- - "E" = Exercise
- - "W" = Water
- - "S" = Sunlight
- - "T" = Thoughts
- - "A" = Air (Oxygen)
- - "R" = Rest
- - "T" = Trust in God
- - "S" = Sex
(3) Therapies Chart
HEALTH PROBLEMS
SUPPORTING INFORMATION
- The Human Cell 101
- Cellular Respiration
- Acid /Alkaline Balance
- Oxidant /Antioxidant Balance
- Inflammation Information
- Hormones 101
- Neurotransmitters
- The Body Electric
- Bible References to Health
- Toxic Heavy Metals
- Microbes in Health and Disease
Health = Oxidant / Antioxidant Balance - Meet Dr. ROS Jeckyll

Dr. ROS Jeckyll

 - In biological systems, REDOX reactions using the OXIDANT ability of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are essential to body’s functions maintaining life

 

 

 

When we say Oxygen "OXIDIZES" Food, What Does that Mean?

 

Oxygen Molecule (3 O2 ) "Activated" to Produce ROS by 2 Different Mechanisms

 

ROS production in the body can be Enzymatically or Non-enzymatically mediated

 

      ROS are produced continuously in cells either as by-products of metabolism or deliberately as in immune system phagocytosis. They are also by-products of circulation, respiration, digestion and assimilation.

 

 

      REDOX (REDuction/OXidation) REACTION – This chemical term refers to a two-way reaction in which:  

  

-       One atom or molecule (REDUCTANT) -  GIVES away an electron (REDuces)

 

-       Another atom or molecule (OXIDANT) - TAKES an electron (OXidizes).  

 

 

 

 

When we say Oxygen "OXIDIZES" Food, What Does that Mean?

  

      Oxygen is responsible for providing energy for the cell in a process called “cellular respiration” - which takes place in the cell mitochondria (“energy factories’).

  

-       Oxygen (the “oxidant” in this REDOX reaction) “oxidizes“ ( removes electrons from) glucose (Electrons are transferred from the sun's radiant energy to glucose in food, via chlorophyll) - and then uses the 4 electrons it acquires to produce energy.

 

        Electrons are removed from glucose in a series of enzyme-assisted steps, which pass them along an “Electron Transport Chain” until they are finally accepted by oxygen, producing water. Glucose is the “reductant” in this redox reaction, since glucose “reduces” (gives away electrons to) oxygen.

 

-       The energy gained in this process is stored (via a process called “oxidative phosphorylation”) as ATP molecules - the form of energy that cells use to function.

 

Cellular Respiration

 

 

The Oxygen Molecule (3O2 ) May be "Activated" to Produce ROS in the body by 2 Different Mechanisms

 

(1) By Excitation:

If Atmospheric Oxygen (3 O2) absorbs sufficient energy to reverse the spin of one of its unpaired electrons, it will form the ROS singlet oxygen, in which its two unpaired electrons have opposite spins.

 

Singlet oxygen does not then have the spin restriction of triplet oxygen, and can thus participate in reactions involving the simultaneous transfer of two electrons (divalent reduction). Since paired electrons are common in organic molecules, singlet oxygen is much more reactive towards organic molecules than 3 O2  .

 

Singlet oxygen can be introduced into the body by various therapies E.g. Ozone therapy, Hydrogen peroxide therapy, PDT

 

(Photodynamic Therapy – provides benefit of light therapy on photosensitive molecules purposefully introduced to target areas off body)

 

 

(2) By reduction: In the body, ROS are more typically produced by the progressive reduction of Oxygen to form Superoxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Hydroxyl  Radical  and finally water.

 

The energy-producing cellular respiration chain in the mitochondria (the energy "factory" of cell)  uses more than 90% of the body's oxygen, in a 4-step process that takes place one electron-transfer at a time, ultimately producing water, carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy. The summary process of how cells produce energy from glucose in the presence of sufficient oxygen is:

C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 3 O2       6 CO2 +  6 H2O  +   Energy

                             

 These partial equations show the intermediate ROS produced during this 4-step process:

 

1

3 O2      +    e-        O2 · --                             

Superoxide Radical  (mildly reactive) 

Adding 1e- to molecular oxygen

2

O2· --     +  H2O   HO2·   +  OH--

Hydroperoxyl Radical (highly reactive)

Adding H to Superoxide

3

HO2·    +    e-  +   H              H2O2

Hydrogen Peroxide (poorly reactive) 

Adding 2 e- to molecular oxygen

4

H2O2   +    e-  OH·   +   OH--

Hydroxyl Radical  (extremely reactive)

Adding 1e- to Hydrogen peroxide

 

 

ROS production in the body can be  Enzymatically

or Non-enzymatically mediated

 

Enzymatic oxidation:

 

         Oxidases: enzymes that catalyze the reaction when oxygen is the acceptor of hydrogen to form water or H2O2

 

         Hydroperoxidases and peroxidases:  use H2O or ROOH as oxidizing agent;

 

         Dehydrogenases: catalyse dehydrogenation of a substrate using NAD+ or NADP+

 

         Oxygenases: incorporate oxygen into substrate

 

      A variety of enzyme systems are capable of generating significant amounts of free radicals, including:

 

         Xanthine oxidase - activated in ischemia / reperfusion (reduction / restoration of blood supply to an organ or tissue caused by constriction or obstruction of the blood vessels, as after a heart attack).

 

 

 

         Lipoxygenase enzymes catalyze reactions between 3 O2  and PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), such as arachidonic acid (AA), containing methylene interrupted double bonds.
When AA is the substrate, these Hydroperoxides are known as HpETEs which can be transformed into Hydroxy products (
HETEs).

 

         Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes catalyze the addition of 3 O2   to various PUFAs, converting them into biologically active molecules called endoperoxides (PGG, PGH) - intermediates in the transformation of fatty acids to prostaglandins.

 

         Myeloperoxidase -  produced in neutrophils, monocytes and newly activated macrophages, catalyses hydrogen peroxide’s oxidation of chloride ions into the powerful oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl)

 

         Prostaglandin synthase

 

         Aldehyde oxidase

 

         Amino acid oxidase.

 

 

Non-enzymatic (Autoxidation):

 

      Autoxidation is a by-product of the aerobic internal milieu - molecules that undergo autoxidation include:

 

         Catecholamines

 

         Haemoglobin

 

         Myoglobin (in heavily exercised muscles)

 

         Rreduced cytochrome C

 

         Thiol.

 

      Autoxidation of any of the above molecules in a reaction results in the reduction of  3O2    and the formation of ROS - Superoxide is the primary radical formed. 

 

       A ferrous ion (Fe II) also, can have its electron stolen from it by oxygen to produce superoxide and Fe III - by the process of autoxidation (Fridovich, 1983 and 1995).

 

AOX - ROS Related Links

ANTIOXIDANT / OXIDANT  BALANCE  Related Links

Health is a Balancing Act Between OXIDANTS and ANTIOXIDANTS 

-   A Powerful bioxidative tool

LIFE'S OXYGEN PARADOX

- Meet Dr. ROS Jeckyll

              and Mr. ROS Hyde

•   Dr. ROS Jeckyll

•   Mr. ROS Hyde

-   Where do Body’s ROS Come From?

 

 Ÿ•     ROS Chart

-   Antioxidants - Oxidant Damage Control

 

•    ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS

•    NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS

DISCLAIMER - The information given at this website is for research purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose or cure any mental or physical condition. It is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a licensed professional. In the event that you use this information for your own health, you are prescribing for yourself, which is your constitutional right as a U.S. citizen under Amendment IX of the U.S. Constitution, and for which the author of this information assumes no responsibility. The author of this information is neither a legal counselor nor a health practitioner and makes no claim in this regard. Any references to health benefits of specifically named products on this site are given as this website author's sole opinion and are not approved or supported in any manner by their manufacturers or distributors. COPYRIGHT 2009-2017