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HORMONES

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Chart of Human Hormones

* Catecholamine (CAT) –Adrenal “Fight or Flight”hormones releases in response to stress; Part of the sympathetic nervous system.

Structure

Hormone

Abbr.

Source

Effect

A

M

I

N

E

S

Trypto-phan

MELATONIN

Pineal gland

Antioxidant / causes drowsiness

SEROTONIN

5-HT

CNS, GI Tract

Controls mood, appetite, sleep

Tyrosine

THYROXINE

T4

Thyroid gland

Weak thyroid hormone (TH) form;

▲  BMR and sensitivity to catecholamines (CATs); affects protein synthesis

TRIIODOTHYRONINE

T3

Thyroid gland

Potent TH form;

▲  BMR and sensitivity to CATs;

affects protein synthesis

Tyrosine

*CATs

EPINEPHRINE

Adrenal medulla

“Fight or flight”response;

▲  Oxygen /Glucose supply to brain/muscles

(▲  heart rate, stroke volume, vasodilation, breakdown of liver's glycogen & fat cell lipids);

Dilates pupils; suppresses non-emergency systems (E.g digestion, immune system)

NOREPINEPHRINE

Adrenal medulla

“Fight or flight”response;

▲  oxygen /glucose supply to brain/muscles

(▲  heart rate, stroke volume, vasoconstriction, blood pressure, breakdown of fat cell lipids);

▲  Skeletal muscle readiness

DOPAMINE

Kidney,

hypothalamus

▲  Heart rate, blood pressure

Inhibit release of PROLACTIN & TRH

Histidine

HISTAMINE

Stomach

▲  Stimulate gastric acid secretion

P

O

L

Y

P

E

P

T

I

D

E

S

P

O

L

Y

P

E

P

T

I

D

E

S

P

O

L

Y

P

E

P

T

I

D

E

S

P

O

L

Y

P

E

P

T

I

D

E

S

ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE

Testes

Inhibit release of PROLACTIN & TRH

ADIPONECTIN

Adipose

ADRENOCORTICO-TROPIN HORMONE

ACTH

Anterior pituitary

Synthesis of glucocorticoids and weak androgens in adrenal cortex

ANGIOTENSINOGEN / ANGIOTENSIN

AGT

Liver

Vasoconstriction /Release ALDOSTERONE from adrenal cortex

ANTIDIURETICHORMONE

(aka VASOPRESSIN)

ADH

Posterior pituitary

Water retention in kidneys.
/Moderate vasoconstriction /Release ACTH

ATRIAL-NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE

ANP

Heart

BRAIN NATRIURETIC

PEPTIDE

Heart

(Minor to ANP) Reduces blood pressure (by reducing systemic vascular resistance, blood water, sodium and fats)

CALCITONIN

Thyroid gland

Construct bone / Reduce blood Ca2+

CHOLECYSTOKININ

CCK

Duodenum

Release pancreatic enzymes /Release bile from gallbladder / Hunger suppressant

CORTICOTROPIN -RELEASING HORMONE

CRH

Hypothalamus

Release ACTH from anterior pituitary

ENDOTHELIN

Endothelium, stomach

▲  Increase blood pressure (by constricting blood vessels)

▲  Stimulates gastric acid secretion

ENKEPHALIN

Kidneys

Regulates pain

ERYTHROPOIETIN

Kidney

Stimulate erythrocyte production

FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE

FSH

Anterior pituitary

Female: stimulates maturation of ovarian Graafian follicles

Male: spermatogenesis /Enhances sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) production by teste's Sertoli cells

GASTRIN

Stomach, duodenum

Gastric acid secretion by parietal cells

GHRELIN

Stomach

Stimulate appetite / GH secretion from anterior pituitary gland

GLUCAGON

Pancreas

Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver

/ ▲  Blood glucose

GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE

GnRH

Hypothalamus

FSH and LH release from anterior pituitary

GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE

GHRH

Hypothalamus

GH release from anterior pituiatary

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

HcG

Placenta

Maintain corpus luteum in early pregnancy

/Inhibit immune response to embryo

HUMAN PLACENTAL LACTOGEN

HPL

Placenta

Decreases maternal INSULIN sensitivity to keep mother's blood glucose available for baby

▲  INSULIN + IGF-1 production

▲  INSULIN Resistance (IR) & carbohydrate intolerance

GROWTH HORMONE

GH or hGH

Anterior pituitary

a.k.a. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (hGH); Stimulate growth & cell reproduction

INHIBIN

Testes, ovaries, fetus

Inhibit FSH production

INSULIN

Pancreas

Inhibits GLUCAGON release /Promotes uptake of glucose in liver, muscle, & fat cells from blood, stored as glycogen in liver and muscle / Glycogenesis & glycolysis in liver

/Lipid intake and TG synthesis in adipocytes

INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR

IGF

Liver

INSULIN-like effects.

/Regulate cell growth & development

LEPTIN

Adipose tissue

Appetite

▲  Metabolism

LIPOTROPIN

Anterior pituitary

Lipolysis, steroidogenesis;

Stimulates melanin production by melanocytes

LUTEINIZING HORMONE

LH

Anterior pituitary

Female: ovulation.

Male: Stimulate Lehdig cell TESTOSTERONE production

MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE

MSH

Anterior pituitary, pars intermedia

De novo melanin production by melanocytes in skin and hair

NEUROPEPTIDE Y

NP Y

Stomach

Production:

▲  Increased by food intake

Reduced by physical activity

OREXIN

Hypothalamus

Wakefulness

▲  Energy expenditure

▲  Appetite

OXYTOCIN

Posterior pituitary

Release breast milk;

Contraction of cervix/vagina

Involved in: orgasm, trust between people, circadian homeostasis (body temp., activity level, wakefulness)

PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

Pancreas

–   Self regulates pancreatic exocrine and endocrine secretion;

–   Effects hepatic glycogen levels

–   Effects GI secretions

PARATHYROIID HORMONE

PTH

Parathyroid gland

Opposes CALCITONIN

▲  Blood Ca2+/indirectly stim. osteoclasts

–   Ca2+ reabsorption in kidney

–   Activate vitamin D

(Slightly) blood phosphate:

–    reuptake in kidney

–   ▲  uptake from bones

–   Activate vitamin D

PROLACTIN

PRL

Anterior pituitary, Uterus

▲  Milk production in mammary glands

Sexual gratification after sexual acts

PROLACTIN-RELEASING HORMONE

PRH

Hypothalamus

Releases PROLACTIN from anterior pituitary

RELAXIN

Uterus

Unclear in humans

RENIN

Kidneys

–   Activates renin-angiotensin system (produces ANGIOTENSIN I from ANGIOTENSINOGEN)

SECRETIN

Duodenum

▲  Secretion of bicarbonate: from liver, pancreas, duodenal Brunner's glands

▲  Effects of CHOLECYSTOKININ

(stops) Gastric juice production

SOMATOSTATIN

Hypothalamus,

Islets of Langerhans,

GI system

Inhibit release of pituitary GH and TRH

Suppress release of: GASTRIN, CCK, SECRETIN, MOTILIN, VIP, GIP, ENTEROGLUCAGON in GI system
Lowers gastric emptying rate

Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine

Inhibit pancreatic release of INSULIN and GLUCAGON

Suppress pancreatic exocrine secretion.

THROMBOPOIETIN

Liver, kidneys, striated muscle

Produce platelets

THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (aka THYROTROPIN)

TSH

Anterior pituitary

▲  Thyroid gland secretion of T4 and T3

THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE

TRH

Hypothalamus

▲  Releases TSH

▲  Stimulates PRL release

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

Gluco-corticoid

CORTISOL

Adrenal cortex

Anti-inflammatory / Immunosuppressive

▲  Stimulate gluconeogenesis

Inhibit glucose uptake in muscle/fat cells

▲  Mobilize amino acids from extrahepatic tissues

▲  Stimulate fat breakdown in adipose tissue

Mineralo-corticoid

ALDOSTERONE

Adrenal cortex

Increase blood volume (reabsorbs sodium in kidneys)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney

S

E

X

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

S

E

X

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

S

E

X

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

A

n

d

r

o

g

e

n

s

TESTOSTERONE

Testes

Libido/ Anabolic (Energy building):

▲  muscle mass/strength , bone density, growth

Virilzing: sex organ maturation /scrotum formation, deep voice, male-pattern hair growth

Dehydro-epiandrosterone

DHEA

Testes,ovaries, kidneys

Virilization, anabolic

ANDROSTENEDIONE

ANDRO

Adrenal glands, gonads

Substrate for Estrogen

DIHYDRO-TESTOSTERONE

DHT

Multiple

E

s

t

r

o

g

e

n

s

ESTRADIOL

E2

Ovaries,testes

Females:

Structural:

-Maintain blood vessels/skin

▲  Formation of female secondary sex characteristics

▲  Height growth

▲  Metabolism (fat-burning)

▲  Endometrial / uterine growth

▲  Bone formation

Muscle massn

Bone resorptis\on (increases bone formation)

Protein synthesis:

-Production of hepatic binding proteins

Coagulation:

▲ Circulating levels of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, anithrombin III, plasminogen;

▲ Platelet adhesiveness

Fats:▲  HDL, TGs ▲  LDL, fat deposition

Fluid balance: ▲  Salt (Na) / water retention

Hormones:▲  GH, CORTISOL, SHBG

GI tract: ▲  Bowel motility ▲  Cholesterol in bile

Melanin: ▲  Pheomelanin Eumelanin

Cancer: Promotes hormone-sensitive cancers

Lung function:▲  Supports alveoli.

Males: Prevent apoptosis of germ cells

ESTRONE

E1

Ovaries

ESTRIOL

E3

Placenta

P

r

o

g

e

s

t

a

g

e

n

s

PROGESTERONE

Ovaries, pregnant placenta, adrenal glands

Support pregnancy:

–   Convert endometrium to secretory stage;

–   Make cervical mucus permeable to sperm;

Inhibit immune response to embryo

Uterine smooth muscle contractility

Lactation

Onset of labor

▲ Fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids

Other:

▲ Epidermal growth factor-1

▲ Core temperature during ovulation

Spasm

Gallbladder activity

–   Relax smooth muscle (widen bronchi/regulate mucus)

–   Anti-inflammatory

–   Normalize: blood clotting /vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy.

–   Assist thyroid function

–   Support bone growth (supports osteoblasts), teeth, gums, joints, tendon, ligament, skin (heals by regulating collagen);

–   Help nerve function / healing by regulating myelin

–   Prevent reproductive organ cancers by regulating effects of estrogen

Sterols

CALCITRIOL (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3)

Skin, proximal tubule of kidneys

Active form of vitamin D

▲ Calcium and phosphate absorption from GI tract and kidneys

Inhibit release of PTH

CALCIDIOL (25-hydroxyvitamin D3)

Skin, proximal tubule of kidneys

Inactive form of vitamin D

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