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DIY SOLUTIONS FOR YOUR HEALTH
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- - "N" = Nutrition
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- - "S" = Sex
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SUPPORTING INFORMATION
- The Human Cell 101
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- Hormones 101
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- Bible References to Health
- Toxic Heavy Metals
- Microbes in Health and Disease
sex_hormone_binding_carriers

 

Sex Hormone-Binding Carrier Proteins

 

   Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)

   Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG)

 

SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin)

Aka. TeBG (TESTOSTERONE-estrogen Binding Globulin)

 

      SHBG binds to estrogen and TESTOSTERONE in the blood  (making them less bioavailable)

 

-       Bioavailability of ESTRADIOL or TESTOSTERONE is determined by the level of SHBG - ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE travel in the blood either strongly (but reversibly) bound to SHBG (ESTRADIOL 40%) or loosely bound to serum albumin (ESTRADIOL 59%).  E.g. Only about 1-2% of circulating ESTRADIOL is “free” to enter a cell and activate its receptor.

 

 

      SBGH level is delicately balanced by enhancing and inhibiting factors:

 

-       SHBG is  increased by:      (makes otherwise unbound hormones LESS bioavailable)

 

         Liver disease, alcohol

 

         Hyperthyroidism - high levels of thyroxine (T3)

 

         Anorexia

 

         High levels of estrogen - E.g. use of HRT, oral contraceptives (metabolized by liver);

 

         High levels of GROWTH HORMONE

 

 

-       SHBG is reduced by:           (makes otherwise bound hormones MORE bioavailable)

 

         Higher circulating INSULIN levels – (note however, that recent evidence reveals that liver’s fat production reduces SHBG, and not any direct effect of INSULIN);

 

         Obesity - obesity leads to high insulin levels, which causes a reduction in the liver’s production  and circulating levels of SHBG (see note above); note that obesity also increases estrogen production in adipose cells via the aromatase enzyme; Thus, obesity can promote cancers such as breast and endometrial cancer – as estrogen becomes more bioavailable (free/unbound to SHBG) for its target tissues.

 

         Hypothyroidism;

 

         Androgens;

 

         Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG)

 

         INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1 (IGF-1)

 

         Cushing’s disease;

 

         Soy - up to 10% reduction;

 

         Nettle root - contains compounds that bind to SHBG; nettle root is also anti-aromatase and therefore acts against estrogen production. 

 

 

      High/Low SHBG Conditions

 

-       Low SHBG (making hormones MORE bioavailable)  - seen in polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, hypothyroidism.

 

-       High SHBG (making hormones LESS bioavailable) - seen in pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, anorexia nervosa. Recent research links high SHBG levels with breast and testicular cancer.

 

 

      SHBG production sites

 

-       SHBG is produced mainly in the liver cells and released into the bloodstream - other production sites are the brain, uterus, placenta and testes (where it is sometimes called androgen-binding protein).

 

 

CBG (Corticosteroid-binding Globulin)

 

      CBG (a.k.a. transcortin) binds to PROGESTERONE, CORTISOL (and other corticosteroids) in the blood

 

-       Bioavailability of PROGESTERONE, CORTISOL  (and other corticosteroids) is determined by level of CBG

 

-       PROGESTERONE is bound by CBG (~18%), albumin (~80%), SHBG (0.6%) and ~2% exists in the free state

Clinical Reproductive medicine and surgery, 2007

 

 

      CBG level is balanced by enhancing and inhibiting factors:

 

-       CBG is   increased by:      (makes otherwise unbound hormones LESS bioavailable)

 

         Estrogens / Pregnancy

 

 

-       CBG is reduced by:           (makes otherwise bound hormones MORE bioavailable)

 

         Cirrhosis (chronic liver disease);

         Alcohol

 

 

      CBG production

 

-       CBG is produced by the liver

Hormones Links

 

HORMONES- Related Links:

HORMONES

Hormones 101 – “Feel Good, Look Good”

Chart of Human Hormones

Testing Hormone Levels

 > Take Hormone Test

 Synthetic Hormones

        – “Frankenstein Version of Natural Hormones”

Balance Adrenal "Stress Managment" Glands  

(1) AMINES:

5-HTP – “SSRI Alternative”

SEROTONIN – “Mood Hormone”

MELATONIN – “Darkness Hormone”

 > The Biological Clock

T3 and T4  - “Thyroid Hormones (Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine)”

HISTAMINE – “Inflammatory Response Hormone”

Fight or Flight Catecholamines:

EPINEPHRINE. NOREPINEPHRINE 

DOPAMINE –  “Go Get it! /Reward Hormone” 

(2) POLYPEPTIDES:

Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN)  - “For auto immune disease, cancer, AIDS, COPD and the common cold”

FSH, LH and GnRH

PROLACTIN – “Cool Down Hormone”

INSULIN – “Blood Sugar Uptake”,  GLUCAGON, IGF

LEPTIN – “Curb appetite / Burn Fat”

GHRELIN – “Hunger Hormone”

(3) STEROID HORMONES:

Steroid Hormones

Steroid enzymes affecting Steroid Production /Activity 

Glucocorticoids

 CORTISOL – “Stress Hormone”

MIneralocorticoids

ALDOSTERONE – “Water Retentive Hormone”

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex hormone-binding carriers

Estrogens – “Predominantly Female Sex Hormones”

Progestagens

PREGNENOLONE

PROGESTERONE – “Precursor to Androgens, Estrogens and Corticoids”

Estrogens and PROGESTERONE in Lifestage Events

Androgens -"Predominately Males Sex Hormone"

Sterols

Vitamin D - The Sunshine Vitamin

  CALCITRIOL (active form)

  CALCIDIOL (circulating form)

DISCLAIMER - The information given at this website is for research purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose or cure any mental or physical condition. It is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a licensed professional. In the event that you use this information for your own health, you are prescribing for yourself, which is your constitutional right as a U.S. citizen under Amendment IX of the U.S. Constitution, and for which the author of this information assumes no responsibility. The author of this information is neither a legal counselor nor a health practitioner and makes no claim in this regard. Any references to health benefits of specifically named products on this site are given as this website author's sole opinion and are not approved or supported in any manner by their manufacturers or distributors. COPYRIGHT 2009-2017