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sex_hormone_binding_carriers

 

Sex Hormone-Binding Carrier Proteins

 

   Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)

   Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG)

 

SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin)

Aka. TeBG (TESTOSTERONE-estrogen Binding Globulin)

 

      SHBG binds to estrogen and TESTOSTERONE in the blood  (making them less bioavailable)

 

-       Bioavailability of ESTRADIOL or TESTOSTERONE is determined by the level of SHBG - ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE travel in the blood either strongly (but reversibly) bound to SHBG (ESTRADIOL 40%) or loosely bound to serum albumin (ESTRADIOL 59%).  E.g. Only about 1-2% of circulating ESTRADIOL is “free” to enter a cell and activate its receptor.

 

 

      SBGH level is delicately balanced by enhancing and inhibiting factors:

 

-       SHBG is  increased by:      (makes otherwise unbound hormones LESS bioavailable)

 

         Liver disease, alcohol

 

         Hyperthyroidism - high levels of thyroxine (T3)

 

         Anorexia

 

         High levels of estrogen - E.g. use of HRT, oral contraceptives (metabolized by liver);

 

         High levels of GROWTH HORMONE

 

 

-       SHBG is reduced by:           (makes otherwise bound hormones MORE bioavailable)

 

         Higher circulating INSULIN levels – (note however, that recent evidence reveals that liver’s fat production reduces SHBG, and not any direct effect of INSULIN);

 

         Obesity - obesity leads to high insulin levels, which causes a reduction in the liver’s production  and circulating levels of SHBG (see note above); note that obesity also increases estrogen production in adipose cells via the aromatase enzyme; Thus, obesity can promote cancers such as breast and endometrial cancer – as estrogen becomes more bioavailable (free/unbound to SHBG) for its target tissues.

 

         Hypothyroidism;

 

         Androgens;

 

         Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG)

 

         INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1 (IGF-1)

 

         Cushing’s disease;

 

         Soy - up to 10% reduction;

 

         Nettle root - contains compounds that bind to SHBG; nettle root is also anti-aromatase and therefore acts against estrogen production. 

 

 

      High/Low SHBG Conditions

 

-       Low SHBG (making hormones MORE bioavailable)  - seen in polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, hypothyroidism.

 

-       High SHBG (making hormones LESS bioavailable) - seen in pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, anorexia nervosa. Recent research links high SHBG levels with breast and testicular cancer.

 

 

      SHBG production sites

 

-       SHBG is produced mainly in the liver cells and released into the bloodstream - other production sites are the brain, uterus, placenta and testes (where it is sometimes called androgen-binding protein).

 

 

CBG (Corticosteroid-binding Globulin)

 

      CBG (a.k.a. transcortin) binds to PROGESTERONE, CORTISOL (and other corticosteroids) in the blood

 

-       Bioavailability of PROGESTERONE, CORTISOL  (and other corticosteroids) is determined by level of CBG

 

-       PROGESTERONE is bound by CBG (~18%), albumin (~80%), SHBG (0.6%) and ~2% exists in the free state

Clinical Reproductive medicine and surgery, 2007

 

 

      CBG level is balanced by enhancing and inhibiting factors:

 

-       CBG is   increased by:      (makes otherwise unbound hormones LESS bioavailable)

 

         Estrogens / Pregnancy

 

 

-       CBG is reduced by:           (makes otherwise bound hormones MORE bioavailable)

 

         Cirrhosis (chronic liver disease);

         Alcohol

 

 

      CBG production

 

-       CBG is produced by the liver

Hormones Links

 

HORMONES- Related Links:

HORMONES

Hormones 101 – “Feel Good, Look Good”

Chart of Human Hormones

Testing Hormone Levels

 > Take Hormone Test

 Synthetic Hormones

        – “Frankenstein Version of Natural Hormones”

Balance Adrenal "Stress Managment" Glands  

(1) AMINES:

5-HTP – “SSRI Alternative”

SEROTONIN – “Mood Hormone”

MELATONIN – “Darkness Hormone”

 > The Biological Clock

T3 and T4  - “Thyroid Hormones (Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine)”

HISTAMINE – “Inflammatory Response Hormone”

Fight or Flight Catecholamines:

EPINEPHRINE. NOREPINEPHRINE 

DOPAMINE –  “Go Get it! /Reward Hormone” 

(2) POLYPEPTIDES:

Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN)  - “For auto immune disease, cancer, AIDS, COPD and the common cold”

FSH, LH and GnRH

PROLACTIN – “Cool Down Hormone”

INSULIN – “Blood Sugar Uptake”,  GLUCAGON, IGF

LEPTIN – “Curb appetite / Burn Fat”

GHRELIN – “Hunger Hormone”

(3) STEROID HORMONES:

Steroid Hormones

Steroid enzymes affecting Steroid Production /Activity 

Glucocorticoids

 CORTISOL – “Stress Hormone”

MIneralocorticoids

ALDOSTERONE – “Water Retentive Hormone”

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex hormone-binding carriers

Estrogens – “Predominantly Female Sex Hormones”

Progestagens

PREGNENOLONE

PROGESTERONE – “Precursor to Androgens, Estrogens and Corticoids”

Estrogens and PROGESTERONE in Lifestage Events

Androgens -"Predominately Males Sex Hormone"

Sterols

Vitamin D - The Sunshine Vitamin

  CALCITRIOL (active form)

  CALCIDIOL (circulating form)