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Enzymes affecting steroid production

Enzymes (and other substances) Affecting

Steroid production (steroidogenesis) /Activity

Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

At a Glance Chart

Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

The conversion of one hormone to another is catalyzed by certain enzyme - as depicted in the rectangular boxes in the following steroid conversion chart.

Thelevelof an enzyme presence in a particular body tissue determines the extent to which the hormone conversion will take place - The amount of a certain hormone in particular areas is a critical factor affecting hormonally related health concerns.

Steroid conversion chart

(conversion enzymes are shown in rectangular boxes)

At a Glance Chart

Enzymes affecting Steroid Production/Activity and Conversion Pathways

Enzyme

Converts

Prod'n /Activity

/ Conversion

Pathway

↑increased by

Prod'n /Activity

/Conversion Pathway

↓decreased by

Comments

P450SCC

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme;

Cholesterol

--
PREGNENOLONE

(in mitochondria);

LH

Estrogens;

Lead;

Vitamin A deficiency;

Certain drugs

Series of reactions occur at the inner membrane;

P450 C17-20

(17α-hydroxylase)

LH

TESTOSTERONE

(affects cAMP pathway)

Ethanol;

Nicotine;

Certain drugs

Catalyzes hydroxylation and cleavage (converts steroids from a 21-carbon to a 19-carbon molecule in Δ4 and Δ5- hydroxysteroid pathways);

17ß-HSD

(17ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

DHEA

--
ANDROSTENEDIOL

ANDROSTENEDIONE

â—„--
TESTOSTERONE

ESTRONE (E1)

--
ESTRADIOL (E2)

Drugs: Cotinine, Danazol, Cyclosporin A, Lithium chloride.

Lignans (E.g. in flaxseed)

Lignans – Enterolactones (lignan precursors) found in E.g.flaxseed inhibit

3ß-HSD

(3ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

PREGNENOLONE

--
PROGESTERONE

DHEA

--
ANDROSTENEDIONE

LH

FSH via LH

TESTOSTERONE

Lead;

Daidzein

/genistein

/biochanin A (isoflavones), Aflatoxin

In the male, FSH, stimulates release of a Sertoli cell factor that increasesLH effect on 3ß-HSD activity;

5AR

(5α-Reductase)

TESTOSTERONE--
DIHYDRO-TESTOSTERONE (DHT)

In testes, liver, brain, prostate, external genitalia, skin, hair follicles and sebaceous glands;

DHT more potent than TESTOSTERONE;

DHT involved in BPH,prostate cancer, hirsutism

Aromatase

TESTOSTERONE

--
ESTRADIOL

ANDROSTENEDIONE

--
ESTRONE

(in females)

Gonadotropins (E.g. FSH, LH, hCG);

Age;

Obesity;

Insulin;

Alcohol.

PROLACTIN

Smoking;

Anti-mullerian hormone

Certain Drugs

Finasteride; PROGESTERONE

Nettle root

Flavonoids

In females, FSH increases aromatase activity, enhancing this conversion;

Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) - blocks conversion of:

PREGNENOLONE --
PROGESTERONE;

Dioxins (in fatty meats, dairy) --
low TESTOSTERONE, and limited prostate growth;

Aminoglutethimide --
low TESTOSTERONE;

Lead, cadmium --
low TESTOSTERONE;

Cyclic-AMP Second Messenger System- C-AMP pathway directly affected by:

Biphenol-A (BPA);

Nicotine;

Nitrate/NO;

Glucocorticoids;

Drugs - Lindane; Indmethacin. Chloroquine. EDS. DBA, Cotinine, Tylosin, Gossypol;

Nitrous oxide(NO) - blocks steroid production;?????

Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) LINKS

STEROID HORMONE ENZYMES

Links

ABOUT

About Steroid Hormone Conversion Enzymes

- P450SCC(Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme)

- P450 C17-20 (17α-hydroxylase)

- 17ß-HSD (17ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

- 3ß-HSD (3ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

- 5AR (5α-Reductase)

- Aromatase
- 11B-hydroxylase
-21a-hydroxlase
Hormones Links

HORMONES- Related Links:

HORMONES

Hormones 101 –“Feel Good, Look Good”

Chart of Human Hormones

Testing Hormone Levels

> Take Hormone Test

Synthetic Hormones

–“Frankenstein Version of Natural Hormones”

Balance Adrenal "Stress Managment" Glands

(1) AMINES:

5-HTP –“SSRI Alternative”

SEROTONIN –“Mood Hormone”

MELATONIN –“Darkness Hormone”

> The Biological Clock

T3 and T4 - “Thyroid Hormones (Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine)”

HISTAMINE –“Inflammatory Response Hormone”

Fight or Flight Catecholamines:

EPINEPHRINE. NOREPINEPHRINE

DOPAMINE –“Go Get it! /Reward Hormone”

(2) POLYPEPTIDES:

Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN)- “For auto immune disease, cancer, AIDS, COPD and the common cold”

FSH, LH and GnRH

PROLACTIN –“Cool Down Hormone”

INSULIN –“Blood Sugar Uptake”, GLUCAGON, IGF

LEPTIN –“Curb appetite / Burn Fat”

GHRELIN –“Hunger Hormone”

(3) STEROID HORMONES:

Steroid Hormones

Steroid enzymes affecting Steroid Production /Activity

Glucocorticoids

CORTISOL –“Stress Hormone”

MIneralocorticoids

ALDOSTERONE

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex hormone-binding carriers

Estrogens –“Predominantly Female Sex Hormones”

Progestagens

PREGNENOLONE

PROGESTERONE –“Precursor to Androgens, Estrogens and Corticoids”

Estrogens and PROGESTERONE in Lifestage Events

Androgens -"Predominately Males Sex Hormone"

Sterols

Vitamin D - The Sunshine Vitamin

CALCITRIOL (active form)

CALCIDIOL (circulating form)