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Enzymes affecting steroid production

Enzymes (and other substances) Affecting

   Steroid production (steroidogenesis) /Activity

   Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

   At a Glance Chart

   Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

 

 

Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

 

      The conversion of one hormone to another is catalyzed by certain enzyme -  as depicted in the rectangular boxes in the following steroid conversion chart.

 

      The  level  of an enzyme presence in a particular body tissue determines the extent to which the hormone conversion will take place - The amount of a certain hormone in particular areas is a critical factor affecting hormonally related health concerns.

 

 

Steroid conversion chart

 (conversion enzymes are shown in rectangular boxes)

 

At a Glance Chart

Enzymes affecting Steroid Production/Activity and Conversion Pathways

Enzyme

Converts

Prod’n /Activity

/ Conversion

Pathway

↑increased by

Prod’n /Activity

/Conversion Pathway

↓decreased by

Comments

P450SCC

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme;

 

Cholesterol

--   PREGNENOLONE

 (in mitochondria);

LH

Estrogens;

 

Lead;

Vitamin A deficiency;

Certain drugs

Series of reactions occur at the inner membrane;

 

P450 C17-20

(17α-hydroxylase)

 

 

LH

TESTOSTERONE

(affects cAMP pathway)

 

Ethanol;

Nicotine;

Certain drugs

Catalyzes hydroxylation and cleavage (converts steroids from a 21-carbon to a 19-carbon molecule in Δ4 and Δ5- hydroxysteroid pathways);

17ß-HSD

(17ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

DHEA

-- ANDROSTENEDIOL

 

ANDROSTENEDIONE

--  TESTOSTERONE

 

ESTRONE (E1)

-- ESTRADIOL (E2)

 

Drugs: Cotinine, Danazol, Cyclosporin A, Lithium chloride.

Lignans (E.g. in flaxseed)

Lignans – Enterolactones (lignan precursors) found in E.g.  flaxseed inhibit

 

3ß-HSD

(3ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

 

PREGNENOLONE

 -- PROGESTERONE

 

DHEA

 -- ANDROSTENEDIONE

 

LH

 

 

FSH via LH

 

TESTOSTERONE

 

Lead;

Daidzein

/genistein

/biochanin A (isoflavones), Aflatoxin

 

 

 

In the male, FSH, stimulates release of a Sertoli cell factor that increases  LH effect on 3ß-HSD activity;

5AR

(5α-Reductase)

TESTOSTERONE   -- DIHYDRO-TESTOSTERONE (DHT)

 

 

In testes, liver, brain, prostate, external genitalia, skin, hair follicles and sebaceous glands;

DHT more potent than TESTOSTERONE;

DHT involved in BPH,  prostate cancer, hirsutism

Aromatase

TESTOSTERONE 

-- ESTRADIOL 

 

 

ANDROSTENEDIONE

--  ESTRONE

(in females)

 

 

Gonadotropins (E.g. FSH, LH, hCG);

Age;

Obesity;

Insulin;

Alcohol.

 

PROLACTIN

Smoking;

Anti-mullerian hormone

Certain Drugs

Finasteride; PROGESTERONE

Nettle root

 

Flavonoids

 

 

 

 

In females, FSH increases aromatase activity, enhancing this conversion;

 

 

Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

 

      Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) - blocks conversion of:

 

PREGNENOLONE -- PROGESTERONE;

 

      Dioxins (in fatty meats, dairy) -- low TESTOSTERONE, and limited prostate growth;

 

      Aminoglutethimide --  low TESTOSTERONE;

 

      Lead, cadmium -- low TESTOSTERONE;

 

      Cyclic-AMP Second Messenger System  - C-AMP pathway directly affected by:

 

         Biphenol-A (BPA);

         Nicotine;

         Nitrate/NO;

         Glucocorticoids;

         Drugs - Lindane; Indmethacin. Chloroquine. EDS. DBA, Cotinine, Tylosin, Gossypol;

 

      Nitrous oxide (NO) - blocks steroid production;?????

Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) LINKS

STEROID HORMONE ENZYMES

 Links

ABOUT

About Steroid Hormone Conversion Enzymes

-  P450SCC  (Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme)

-  P450 C17-20 (17α-hydroxylase)

-  17ß-HSD (17ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

-  3ß-HSD (3ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

-  5AR (5α-Reductase)

-  Aromatase
-  11B-hydroxylase
-  21a-hydroxlase
Hormones Links

 

HORMONES- Related Links:

HORMONES

Hormones 101 – “Feel Good, Look Good”

Chart of Human Hormones

Testing Hormone Levels

 > Take Hormone Test

 Synthetic Hormones

        – “Frankenstein Version of Natural Hormones”

Balance Adrenal "Stress Managment" Glands  

(1) AMINES:

5-HTP – “SSRI Alternative”

SEROTONIN – “Mood Hormone”

MELATONIN – “Darkness Hormone”

 > The Biological Clock

T3 and T4  - “Thyroid Hormones (Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine)”

HISTAMINE – “Inflammatory Response Hormone”

Fight or Flight Catecholamines:

EPINEPHRINE. NOREPINEPHRINE 

DOPAMINE –  “Go Get it! /Reward Hormone” 

(2) POLYPEPTIDES:

Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN)  - “For auto immune disease, cancer, AIDS, COPD and the common cold”

FSH, LH and GnRH

PROLACTIN – “Cool Down Hormone”

INSULIN – “Blood Sugar Uptake”,  GLUCAGON, IGF

LEPTIN – “Curb appetite / Burn Fat”

GHRELIN – “Hunger Hormone”

(3) STEROID HORMONES:

Steroid Hormones

Steroid enzymes affecting Steroid Production /Activity 

Glucocorticoids

 CORTISOL – “Stress Hormone”

MIneralocorticoids

ALDOSTERONE – “Water Retentive Hormone”

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex Steroid Hormones

Sex hormone-binding carriers

Estrogens – “Predominantly Female Sex Hormones”

Progestagens

PREGNENOLONE

PROGESTERONE – “Precursor to Androgens, Estrogens and Corticoids”

Estrogens and PROGESTERONE in Lifestage Events

Androgens -"Predominately Males Sex Hormone"

Sterols

Vitamin D - The Sunshine Vitamin

  CALCITRIOL (active form)

  CALCIDIOL (circulating form)