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Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs)s

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs)

PUFAs which (include the essential fatty acids (EFAs) (E.g. LINOLEIC ACID (LA), GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID (GLA), ARACHIDONIC ACID (AA), α-LINOLENIC ACID (ALA), SDA, EPA and DHA) are predominately found in oils/fats of:

•  Fish

•  Flax seed

•  Nuts and Seeds

•  Beans

•  Grains

•  Vegetables

•  Meat

PUFAs have more than one double carbon bond ("Kink") making them highly reactive

-    Depending on the particular PUFA, there are from TWO to SIX unsaturated "kinks" (double carbon bonds) in its carbon chain "backbone"- these provide many sites for oxidation, making PUFAs highly chemically reactive (due to negatively-charged electron "clouds"at the double carbon bonds).

-   PUFA-containing oils go rancid easily in the presence of oxygen, and more so with light and/or heat - especially Omega3-rich oils. (E.g. Marine oils contain DHA (22:6 w3) with its 6 double carbon bonds).

-   PUFAs Should Never be Heated above 320°F - these beneficial fatty acids are not only destroyed, but are also changed into a form which is toxic to our bodies. E.g. Trans fats begin to form at > 320°F.

-   The many "kinks" in PUFAs keep them liquid, even when refrigerated - Northern climate vegetable oils contain many PUFAs. In contrast, tropical plants need more saturated fats to provide stiffness in their leaves in their warmer climate;

Omega-3 ALA and Omega-6 LA are the polyunsaturated Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)

Your body will not function properly without them, and since your body cannot make them, you must include them in your diet



Parent of Omega-6 Family           Parent of Omega-3 Family

(18:2 w6)                      (18:3 w3)

TWO unsaturated "kinks "           THREE unsaturated "kinks"

(Double Carbon Bonds)               (Double Carbon Bonds)

"Parent" fatty acids LA and ALA Can be converted (via enzymes) to required "Off-spring" fatty acids

LA ==>  GLA ==>  DGLA ==>  AA

ALA ==>  SDA ==>  ETA ==>  EPA ==>  DPA ==>  DHA

The parent fatty acids LA and ALA can be obtained, for example, by eating nuts. LA and ALA fatty acids can then be converted by enzymes in the body to even more unsaturated fatty acids which the body must have to function properly. These highly unsaturated fatty acids can also be obtained directly by eating certain foods or supplementing with natural oils. See the following chart for details.

FOODS containing EFAs and their Derivatives



Omega-6 Parent LA

(Linoleic acid - 18:3w6)

High In:

Nuts, Seed Oils (Safflower, Sesame,Flax seed, Sunflower, Corn, Hemp, Canola, Cottonseed, Peanut), Legumes(E.g. Soy Bean), Wheat germ, Spirulina

Omega-3 Parent ALA

 (α-Linolenic acid - 18:3w3)

High In:

Flaxseed, Flaxseed Oil, Chia seeds, Walnuts, Hemp, Green leafy vegetables

D6D Enzyme in body converts

 LA ==>  GLA

D6D Enzyme in body converts

ALA ==>  SDA

GLA (Gamma-linolenic Acid)

High in: Blackcurrant, Evening Primrose and Borage oils

SDA(Stearidonic Acid - 18:4w3)

In Blackcurrantand other wild seed oils

Elongase Enzyme  converts


Elongase Enzyme  converts

SDA ==>  ETA

DGLA (Di-Homo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid)

Only found inMother's Milk

ETA (Eicosatetraenoic Acid)

D5D Enzyme in body converts

 DGLA ==>  AA

D5D Enzyme in body  converts

ETA ==>  EPA

AA (Arachidonic Acid)

High In: Meat, Dairy, Eggs

EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid)


(1) De-saturation - by enzymes such as D5D (delta5-desaturase) and D6D (delta6-desaturase) inserting a double bond and removing 2 hydrogen atoms.

Or (2) Elongation - by the enzyme elongase adding carbon atoms).


Elongase  converts SDA ==>  DPA

DPA (Docosapentaenoic acid)

Enzyme D4D↕converts DHA ==>  DPA

and DPA ==>  DHA

DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)

EPA and DHA high in: Cold water fish oil, grass-fed beef and poultry, game, eyeballs, brain and testes

(Mmm, Mmm, Mmm ! )

Health Benefits of Polyunsaturated Fat

There is not a function in the body that does not depend on the presence of natural, unaltered polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (EFAs).

In particular they affect:

(1)  Cell Membrane Integrity - Our body needs EFAs to manufacture, repair and maintain fluidity of cell membranes, enabling each cell to effectively obtain nutrition and expel waste products.

(2)  Cellular Energy Production - EFA double carbon bonds provide reactive sites for oxidation.In the cell membrane, this feature attracts oxygen needed by the cell to produce energy.

(3)  Cell scouts (called eicosonoids, families of short-lived, hormone-like signals produced by EFAs) - which regulate body functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood clotting, fertility, conception, kidney function and also play a role in immune function by regulating inflammation and encouraging the body to fight infection.

(4)  Systems Support - EFAs support the cardiovascular, reproductive, immune and nervous systems. In addition, they support vision, blood sugar levels, kidney function, calcium metabolism, skin health and growth / repair mechanisms.

(5)  Child Development - EFAs are needed for proper growth in children, particularly for neural development and maturation of sensory systems. Male children have greater EFA needs than females.

For details on the numerous health benefits of polyunsaturated EFAs, see:

Essential Fat => Health


Attend to Diet, Lifestyle & Emotional State

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Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT)


       "The medical kit of the future"

The Body Electric

General electrotherapy health benefits.   Used systemically and/or locally at specific problem areas of the body, its effective application has many benefits:

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There are several reasonably affordable electrotherapy devices available for personal use. The following electrotherapies are those that have received a significant amount of positive feedback:

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