Heal Yourself At Home
GSE Body's NON-Enzymatic Antioxidants

(2) Non-enzymatic Antioxidants

Major water-soluble Antioxidants

Major Fat-soluble Antioxidants

Major Water-Soluble Antioxidants

Protect aqueous areas (most of the cell's cytoplasm) from oxidation

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid/Ascorbate)

–    Nutritional requirement – since the human body can not make it (mainly obtained from fruits and vegetables). It is largely destroyed by high heat and extended freezing (> 2 months), but dissolves in cooking water, and is thus somewhat retained in soup.

–    Chelating (metal grabbing) and Reducing Agent (radical scavenging –donates electrons to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, ozone and nitrous oxide).

–    Recycles vitamin E (re-reduces vitamin E radical back to vitamin E).


–    Needed for the production of Collagen and Elastin - Involved in the formation of hydroxyproline, a major component of tissue collagen, which is the most abundant protein in our body. Collagen provides the scaffolding for, and is the main component of cartilage, ligaments, tendons and other connective tissue - the reason why broken bones regenerate and wounds heal. It is the main protein in bone and teeth. It strengthens blood vessels, preventing atherosclerosis, and along with keratin, it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity, without which we are looking at wrinkles!

–    The CNS (Central Nervous System) has inbuilt double-pumps to increase vitamin C concentration -The brain and spinal cord, rich in highly unsaturated, easily oxidized fatty acids, are thus provided 100x the ascorbate antioxidant protection than in other organs.

–    Involved in the synthesis of norepinephrine from DOPAMINE –    in the brain.

–    Pro-oxidant under some circumstances


Vitamin C –“God's Medicine”

Glutathione (GSH)(requires selenium) - PRIMARY antioxidant and detoxifier in cell's cytoplasm.

–    A tripeptide (glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) -The cysteine provides a highly reactive free sulphydryl group (SH) providing a “Bulls-eye”for oxidation by radicals. The reduced form is regenerated in a redox cycle involving gluthathione reductase and the electron donor NADPH;

–    Produced inside EVERY cell via glutathione peroxidase

–    Helps red blood cells carry oxygen - and keep their shape, enhancing their delivery to vital organs;

–    Prevents formation of methemoglobin - an altered form of hemoglobin unable to carry oxygen, produced by heme iron-oxidation;

–    Aids amino acid transport across cellular membranes - needed for protein synthesis and cellular function.

–    Immune system enhancer - Needed for creation / maintenance of T-Cell lymphocytes - body's frontline defense against infection.

–    Detoxifies toxins - including heavy metals, cigarette smoke, fuel exhaust, etc,

For more details on this major antioxidant and how to increase your body's intracellular levels:

Glutathione –“King of the Antioxidants”

Major Fat-Soluble Antioxidants

Powerful radical scavengers protect lipid membranes from oxidation

Generally, these are phenols that donate a hydrogen atom to a peroxyl radical, converting it to a lipid hydroperoxide.

Vitamin A / Carotenoids (E.g β-carotene (with fat can be converted to Vitamin A), lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene);

–    Singlet Oxygen quenchers

–    Abundant in - green plants, carrots, tomatoes and other brightly colored vegetables

Vitamin A –“The Grass Vitamin”

Vitamin E (Tocopherols)

–    Sole purpose to scavenge peroxyl radical in cell membranes

–    Important in fertility

–    Found in - fish oil, nuts, seeds, wheat germ.

Vitamin E

CoEnzyme Q-10 (a phenol)

–    Present in the mitochondrion inner membrane - Important in the energy producing respiratory chain;

–    Powerful reducing agent

–    Found in beef, herring, chicken, trout

For more detail :

CoQ10 –“Spark and Dampener”

Vitamin D

–    Formed by sun acting on skin - or in animal products, if animal went outside in the sun, or ate foods containing vitamin D.

For more detail :

Vitamin D –“The Sunshine Vitamin”

Vitamin K

Vitamin K –“For Klotting and Kalcium"



–    Hormone produced in the pineal gland in darkness (usually at night) – i.e. during a “Good night's sleep”

–    Direct scavenger of highly toxic OH (hydroxyl radical),O2- (superoxide radical), NO (Nitric Oxide) , OONO‾ (Peroxynitrite), 1O2* (singlet oxygen), and possibly ROO (Peroxyl radical)

–    May stimulate other enzymatic antioxidants - including SOD (superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH);

–    Reduces oxidative damage in membrane lipids, proteins and nuclear DNA

–    Enters cells with ease

–   MELATONIN levels diminishes with age

For more detail :

MELATONIN –“Darkness Hormone”

Uric Acid (most important plasma antioxidant in humans)


Lipoic Acid

Bilirubin/Histidine - singlet oxygen quenchers

side bar
DISCLAIMER: The content on this website is intended for informational, and educational purposes only and not as a substitute for the medical advice, treatment or diagnosis of a licensed health professional. The author of this website is a researcher, not a health professional, and shall in no event be held liable to any party for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, punitive or other damages arising from any use of the content of this website. Any references to health benefits of specifically named products on this site are this website author's sole opinion and are not approved or supported by their manufacturers or distributors. COPYRIGHT 2009-2019