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BACTERIA - About

Bacteria

About

 

Introduction to bacteria

 

      Bacteria are:

 

         Single-celled organisms found in all types of environments

 

         Can only be seen through a microscope – measured in micrometers (one millionth of a meter)

 

         Prokaryotes they do not contain a nucleus

 

         Grouped in families having the same bacterial ancestors.

 E.g. Enterobacteriaceae

 

         A family member is a genus each genus having developed its own peculiar characteristics. E.g. Escherichia

 

         A genus has different species E.g Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)

 

         Different shapes, sizes and many other characteristics

 

 

Bacterial Purpose / Activities

 

      Harmless, beneficial or harmful (pathogenic) bacteria?  

 

-       Harmless –  do not affect humans

 

-       Beneficial Bacteria -   produce enzymes that:

 

         Aid food digestion and production of some vitamins - break down complex food molecules into simpler materials (especially in ruminants); Responsible for production of vitamin K and some b vitamins

 

         Are Involved in production of many foods eaten by humans – milk souring bacteria are used to produce yogurt, cottage cheese, and buttermilk; other bacteria used to produce vinegar and sauerkraut

 

         Are the principal agents of putrefaction - the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials, especially protein (i.e. contains nitrogen); produces foul odors

 

         Are the principal agents of decay -  the gradual decomposition of organic matter exposed to air by bacteria and fungi.

 

 

 

-       Pathogenic bacteria – cause disease by different mechanisms:

 

         Directly attack tissues (in other life-forms) E.g. Bacterial Leaf Spot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii

 

 

Bacterial Type

Characteristics

Acetic acid bacteria (mostly)

Rod-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic; highly tolerant of acidic conditions; generate organic acids

Actinomycete (mostly)

Rod-shaped or filamentous, GRAM-POSITIVE, aerobic; common in soils; essential to growth of many plants; source of much of original antibiotic production in pharmaceutical industry

Coccoid (mostly)

Spherical, sometimes in clusters or strings, GRAM-POSITIVE, aerobic and anaerobic; resistant to drying and high-salt conditions; Staphylococcus species common on human skin, certain strains associated with toxic shock syndrome

Coryneform

Rod-shaped, form club or V shapes, GRAM-POSITIVE, aerobic; found in wide variety of habitats, particularly soils; highly resistant to drying; include Arthrobacter, among most common forms of life on earth

Endospore-forming (mostly)

Usually rod-shaped, can be GRAM-POSITIVE or gram-negative; have highly adaptable, heat-resistant spores that can go dormant for long periods, possibly thousands of years; include CLOSTRIDIUM and BACILLUS

Enteric (mostly)

Rod-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic but can live in certain anaerobic conditions; produce nitrite from nitrate, acids from glucose; include Escherichia coli,Salmonella (over 1000 types), and Shigella

Gliding (mostly)

Rod-shaped, gram-negative, mostly aerobic; glide on secreted slimy substances; form colonies, frequently with complex fruiting structures

Lactic acid (mostly)

Rod-shaped or cocci, GRAM-POSITIVE, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic; produce lactic acid through fermentation; include: LACTOBACILLUS, essential in dairy product formation, and STREPTOCOCCUS (common in humans), BIFIDOBACTERIA ; Catalase negative

Mycobacterium

Pleomorphic, spherical or rod-shaped, frequently branching, no gram stain, aerobic; commonly form yellow pigments; include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cause of tuberculosis

Mycoplasma

Spherical, commonly forming branching chains, no gram stain, aerobic but can live in certain anaerobic conditions; without cell walls yet structurally resistant to lysis; among smallest of bacteria; named for superficial resemblance to fungal hyphae (myco- means 'fungus')

Nitrogen-fixing

Rod-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic; convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonium in soil; include Azotobacter, a common genus

Propionic acid

Rod-shaped, pleomorphic, GRAM-POSITIVE, anaerobic; ferment lactic acid; fermentation produces holes in Swiss cheese from the production of carbon dioxide

Pseudomonad

Rod-shaped (straight or curved) with polar flagella, gram-negative, aerobic; can use up to 100 different compounds for carbon and energy

Rickettsia (mostly)

Spherical or rod-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic; cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus; closely related to Agrobacterium, a common gall-causing plant bacterium

Sheathed

Filamentous, gram-negative, aerobic; 'swarmer' (colonizing) cells form and break out of a sheath; sometimes coated with metals from environment

Spirillum (mostly)

Spiral-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic; include Bdellovibrio, predatory on other bacteria

Spirochete (mostly)

Spiral-shaped, gram-negative, mostly anaerobic; common in moist environments, from mammalian gums to coastal mudflats; complex internal structures convey rapid movement; include Treponemapallidum (cause of syphilis)

Sulfate- and
Sulfur-reducing

Commonly rod-shaped, mostly gram-negative, anaerobic; include Desulfovibrio, ecologically important in marshes

Sulfur- and
iron-oxidizing(mostly)
(mostly)(mostly)

Commonly rod-shaped, frequently with polar flagella, gram-negative, mostly anaerobic; most live in neutral (nonacidic) environment

Vibrio (mostly)

Rod- or comma-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic; commonly with a single flagellum; include Vibrio cholerae (cause of cholera), and luminescent forms symbiotic with deep-water fishes and squids

 

Reference: Bacteria.Dr. Sayeed Ahmad D. I. Hom. (London)

 

  

References

Taber’s Online Medical Dictionary

http://www.scienceclarified.com/As-Bi/Bacteria.html#ixzz2JqhuVa1t

Bacteria Links

 

BACTERIA

Related Links

About Bacteria

About Bacteria 

  -    Bacterial Characteristics:

  Shape and Size

 GRAM + or Gram – ?   (Bacterial cell envelope)

  Growth

  Motility

  Requirements

  -     Body's Flora (Indigenous Bacteria in the human body)

  -     Bacterial Defense against oxidation

  -     Endospores

Bacteria in Disease
  -    Bacteria and disease
  -    Transmission of Disease 
  -    Biofilms
Pathogenic Bacteria Links

 

SPECIFIC BACTERIA

in Flora and Disease

(Clinically Most Significant in the Body)

Related Links

Of Special Mention

-    Spirochetes

    -     Lactic Acid Bacteria

 

G+  

g-

AF

Acid

Fast   

     Cocci

     Rod

 Spiral

Comma

M /nm  Motile /nonmotile

Obligate Aerobe

Microaerophile

Aerotolerant Anaerobe

Facultative Anaerobe

Obligate Anaerobe

C+ /C- Catalase

OX+/OX- Oxidase

 

Encapsulated

Sporulating

Bacterial Family Name - Color-coded to oxygen need

Genera

     Species  - listed with associated diseases

 

CAPITAL NAMES = Gram +

lower case names = gram -

 

Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram Negative Cocci

Neisseriaceae

g-   M 

Neisseria

 

N. gonorrhoeae

Gonorrhea

N. meningitidis    

Meninigitis

Gram Negative Rods

Pseudomonadaceae

g-    M

Pseudonomas

 

P.aeruginosa

Major nosocomial infection hits immunocompromised, IV-lines);

UTIs, sepsis, pneumonia, pharyngitis

Moraxellaceae

g-    nm                  OX-

Acinetobacter

 

A.baumannnii

Nosocomial skin and wound infections, pneumonia, meningitis

A. iwoff

Meningitis

Alcaligenaceae

g-   

Bordetella

 

B. Pertussis nm

Whooping cough

B. parapertussis

Mild pharyngitis

B. bronchiseptica M

Pneumonia, otitis media

Brucellaceae

g-    nm

Brucella

 

B. abortus (from cows)

Bacterial blood infiltration (bacteremia): Brucellosis, Malta fever;

B. suis (from pigs)

 

B. melitensis(from goats)

 

B. canis (from dogs)

 

Legionellaceae

g- 

Legionella

 

L. pneumophila

Legionnaires’ disease,

 Pontiac fever, pneumonia

L. micdadei

Pneumonia

Pseudomonadaceae

g-    M

Pseudonomas

 

P.aeruginosa

Major nosocomial infection hits immunocompromised, IV-lines);

UTIs, sepsis, pneumonia, pharyngitis

Moraxellaceae

g-    nm                  OX-

Acinetobacter

 

A.baumannnii

Nosocomial skin and wound infections, pneumonia, meningitis

A. iwoff

Meningitis

Pasteurellaceae

g-    nm          OX+  C+

Haemophilus

 

H. Influenzae types a-f

Meningitis (Hib)

H. influenzae (NTHi / non-typeable)

Otitis media, sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia

H. aegyptius

Pinkeye (conjuctivitis)

H. ducreyi

Venereal disease (Chancroid)

Enterobacteriaceae

g-   M OX-  C+ /C-

Escherichia

 

E. Coli

UTIs, pneumonia, meningitis, traveler’s diarrhea, peritonitis,

pyelonephritis

Shigella

                 nm

S.boydii. S. dysenteriae

S. flexneri S. sonnei

Dysentry (Diarrhea + fever)

Edwardsiella

 

E.tarda

Gastroenteritis;

 wound infections

Salmonella

g- 

2200 S. species

Bacterial food poisoning

S. typhi

Typhoid

Citrobacter

 

C. freundii

Diarrhea?

C. diversus

Meningitis in newborns?

Klebsiella  

 

K. pneumoniae

UTIs

Enterobacter

 

E. aerogenes (F)

UTIs

E. cloacae

UTIs

Serratia

 

S. marcescens

Utis,, wound infections

Proteus

 

P.mirabilis, P. vulgaris

UTIs, wound infections,

Hospital acquired infections

Morganella

 

M. morganii

UTIs, wound infections,

diarrhea

Yersinia

 

Y. enterocolitica

Intestinal inflammation / pain

(via enterotoxin release)

Y. Pestis

Bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic plagues

Gram Negative Curved Rod / Comma

Vibrionaceae

g-  M                       OX+  C+

Vibrio

 

V. cholerae

Cholera

Gram Negative Spiral

Campylobacteraceae

g-   M

Campylobacter

 

C. jejuni

Diarrhea, gastrointestinitis

Helicobacteraceae

g-  (helix) M        OX+  C+

Helicobacter

 

H. Pylori

Stomach and duodenal ulcers,

Gastric carcinomas,

Chronic gastritis (in U.S.)

SPIROCHAETAE

g-  M

Spirochetes (Class)

Spirochaetaceae   (Genera)

 

Borrelia

 

 

B.burgdorferi

Lyme Disease

 Treponema

 

 

 

T. pallidum

 

Syphilis, yaws

 

 GRAM-POSITIVE Bacteria

GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI

Micrococcaceae

G+    nm                 OX+ CAT+

Micrococcus

 

M. luteus, M. roseus, M. varians

Harmless skin contaminant, 

Staphylococcus

 

S.aureus

Soft tissue infections, TSS,

Scalded skin syndrome, pneumonia, meningitis, boils, arthritis, osteomyelitis

Streptococcus

 

S.pyogenes

90% of pharyngitis (“strep throat”)

S.pneumonia

Pus-producing; Pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media

S.mutans, s. mitis

(Viridans group)

Large percentage of tooth decay

GRAM-POSITIVE RODS

MYCOBACTERIACEAE

G+ /AF    nm

M. tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

M. Leprosy

Leprosy

BACILLACEAE

G+                    CAT+

BACILLUS

 

B. AnthraCIS      

  nm

 Anthrax

B. CEreUS            

M

Toxin-mediated food poisoning              

LACTOBACILLACEAE

G+                     

LACTOBACILLUS

Harmless; ferments glucose or lactose à lactic acid

L. acidophilus,

 L. casei, L. brevis,

 L. animalis,

 

LISTERIACEAE

G+                   CAT+

LISTERIA

 

L. monocytogenes

Food poisoning, septocemia,

Meningitis in immuno-compromised; Listeriosis

PROPionibacteriaceae

G+

PROPionibacterium

 

P. ACNES

Acne, chronic blepharitus

CORYNEBACTERIACEAE

 

CORYNEBACTERIA

 

C. DIPTHERIAE

Diptheria (caused by toxin)

Actinomycetaceae

G+

Actinomyces

 

A. meyeri

 

CLOSTRIDIACEAE

 

CLOSTRIDIUM

G+

C. Botulinum,

C. butyrculum

C. barati

C argentinense

M

Botulism: from botulinum neurotoxin (Botox), usually food-borne. Honey can contain spores affecting infants <1yr old)

C. Difficile

M

Pseudomembranous colitis; common nosocomial infection

C. Tetani

M

Tetanus

C. Perfringens

nm

Gas gangrene, clostridial necrotizing enteritis

PEPTOSTREPTOCOCCUS

 

G+  

P. Magnus 

P anaerobius

P micros

 

Infections of oral cavity, respiratory, female genitourinary and GI tracts, bone and joints; also  deep organ abscesses and leg/foot ulcers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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