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Glycemic index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL)

Glycemic Index (GI)

Higher blood sugar levels spur increased INSULIN levels in order to mobilize excess blood glucose into fat storage

The glycemic index (GI) of a food refers to how quickly that food releases its glucose and raises blood sugar levels when it is consumed.  Developed in 1981 by David Jenkins at the U. of Toronto, the GI is specifically a comparative ranking of the effect that 50 grams of a given food has on blood sugar. 

Knowing a food's GI is particularly helpful if you are diabetic and want to control blood sugar levels and swings, or to a long distance runner who would favor high glycemic foods. Normal blood glucose level is  68 to 135 mg/dL. Blood sugar too low may cause fainting or a coma, too high can cause damage to body organs, particularly the kidneys and eyes.

The GI for a food is a number relative to the GI of glucose, which is 100.  Fasting blood sugar levels regularly over 126 mg/dl (hyperglycemia) or A1C test result of >6.5% (an average measure of blood sugar over 2-3 months) show a higher risk of developing glucotoxicity. Note that high blood sugar is not necessarily related to diabetes --- evidence suggests that it can also result from oxidative stress damage to pancreatic, INSULIN-producing beta cells, due to such as stress, poor diet or lack of exercise.

The glycemic index for a food depends on:

1. The amount of carbohydrate present. 

2. The type of carbohydrate present. 

3. The presence of other substances (e.g. soluble fiber) that slow down carbohydrate metabolism. 

Glycemic Index (GI) Values
Low Medium High
1-55 56-69 70+

Generally ---  less-processed, fiber-rich foods such as non-starchy vegetables (e.g. asparagus, artichoke, baby corn, beets, bamboo shoots, brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, eggplant, leeks, mushrooms, pea pods, peppers,  onions, radishes, rutabaga, salad greens, sprouts, swiss chard, turnips, tomato, water chestnuts), beans and whole grains have a lower GI than sugary or highly-processed foods such as sodas and white bread.

Glycemic Load (GL)

The GL is a more realistically accurate comparable unit than the GI because it takes serving size into account (the GI is based on consumption of 50g)  . E.g. You would not likely eat 50g  (2 1/2 cups) of peas,  50g (4 cups) of watermelon or 50g (1.3 pounds) of carrots at one sitting.

The Glycemic Load (GL) is calculated as:

Food's GI  * (Grams of carbohydrates / serving size)  /  100

Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL) Values
  Low Medium High
GI 1-55 56-69 70+
GL 1-10 11-19 20+
Chart of foods comparing GI to GL
 
HIGH CARB FOODS
Food   GI GL Carbs (g)/serving
Glucose, maltodextrin 1 tsp (9g) 100 9 9
Corn syrup 1 Tbsp (30g) 90 27 30
Doughnut 1 76 (high) 17  
White bread Slice (30g) 75 ±2 10 14
Whole wheat bread Slice (30g) 74 ±2 10 14
Specialty seed/grain bread Slice (41g) 53 ±2 7 14
Ryvita Slice (10g) 65 4 6
White spaghetti (boiled 15 mins) 1 Cup 44 18 43
Whole grain spaghetti 1 Cup 48 ±2 16 37
White rice, boiled 1/2 Cup 73 ±4 17 21
White basmati rice, boiled 1/2 Cup 50 13 25
Brown rice, boiled 1/2 Cup 55 15 23
Brown basmati rice, boiled 1/2 Cup 45 11 25
Rolled oats (porridge) 1 Cup 58 14 24
Instant oatmeal 1 Cup 79 ±3 26 47
Pearled barley 1/2 Cup 28 ±2 7 22
Couscous (150g /~1 Cup)   65 ±4 9  
Quinoa (150g / 0.8 Cup)   53 13  
Cornflakes 1 Cup 81 ±6 20 24
FRUIT
Food   GI GL Carbs /serving (g)
Apple Med. 36 ±2 6 18
Pear Med. 38 4 22
Peach Med. 56 7 12
Banana Small 51 ±3 11 20
Mango   51 ±3    
Raspberries 1/2 Cup 25 1 3.5
Blueberries 1/2 Cup 2.5 9 20
Dates   42 ±4    
Orange Med. 43 ±3 5 13
Blueberries 1/2 Cup 2.5 9 20
Grapefruit 1/2 large 25 2.75 11
Watermelon 1 cup cubed 76 ±4 8 (low) 11
Raisins 1/4 Cup 64 17 26
PROTEIN-RICH FOODS
Food   GI GL Carbs /serving (g)
Almonds 1 oz 1.5 - 3
Walnuts 1oz 0 - 2
Bacon 3 strips 0 - 0
Eggs, poached 1 large 0 - 1
Beef steak 3 oz 0 - 0
Cheddar cheese 1.5 oz 0 - 1
VEGETABLES
Food   GI GL Carbs /serving (g)
Potato, boiled 1/2 Cup 78 ±4 11 14
Potato chips 4 oz 54 30 55
Carrots, steamed 1/2 Cup chopped 39 ±4 1 4
Sweet potatoes 1/2 C mashed 63 ±6 15 25
Peas, cooked 1/2 Cup 51(low) 5.6 (low) 11
Avocado 1/2 med. 0 - 4
CANDIES / SUGAR
Food   GI GL Carbs /serving (g)
White table sugar (2 tsp)   65 ±4 7  
Snickers candy bar 2 oz 58 21 34.5
Jelly beans (10 large)   78 22  
Honey 1 Tbsp 55 9 17
DRINKS
Food   GI GL Carbs /serving (g)
Beer, Budweiser 4.9% alc. 12 oz 66 7 11
Gin, 40% alc. 1 oz 0 0 0
White wine 5 oz 0 0 4
Coca Cola 8 oz 53 13 25
Orange juice 6 oz 53 11 20

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NEWSTARTS CHART

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S T A R T S


Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT)

   Electrotherapy

       "The medical kit of the future"

The Body Electric

General electrotherapy health benefits.   Used systemically and/or locally at specific problem areas of the body, its effective application has many benefits:

Detoxification Wellness / Healthy aging Pain relief 
Relief from insomnia Immune system restoral Anti-Inflammatory
Maximizes cellular energy production Accelerated tissue /bone /scar healing Stress Reduction
Muscle relaxation / rehabilitation Increased blood oxygen / circulation +++

There are several reasonably affordable electrotherapy devices available for personal use. The following electrotherapies are those that have received a significant amount of positive feedback:

*  Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) applies specific frequency patterns to the head area, with the following benefits:

Balances brain neuro-transmitters Relieves pain  Treats depression
Substance abuse withdrawal Relieves insomnia Relieve stress / anxiety
 Anti-Inflammatory Fibromyalgia +++