Heal Yourself at Home
DIY SOLUTIONS FOR YOUR HEALTH
GSE

Sweeteners:

Natural / Minimally Processed Sweeteners

Nutritive sweeteners chart

Use in moderation since too much sugar can be detrimental to your health

The "old fashioned" nutritive sweeteners

Nutritive sweeteners consist of varying proportions of the 3 monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose).   Sucrose (table sugar) is a glucose molecule bonded to a fructose molecule, lactose (milk sugar) is a glucose molecule bonded to a galactose molecule, and maltose is a glucose bonded to a glucose molecule

Sugar's building blocks

To be able to make better sugar choices for health and weight control,  it helps to know what happens to them after they enter your body:

Sugar absorption and metabolism

All nutritive sugars can be harmful to teeth and cause health problems if consumed to excess.   They should therefore be used in moderation.

Calculations in chart

This chart enables you to compare sugars based on their glycemic index (GI) / glycemic load (GL) and how many calories are consumed compared to 1 metric teaspoon of table sugar (sucrose) to obtain the equivalent amout of sweetness.    (Table sugar has 15 calories and a Sweetness Index (SI) of 1)

Equivalent calories to equal 1 metric tsp. of sucrose sweetness is calculated as:

Cals./ tsp.  (i.e.  g/tsp * cals / g)        ÷       Food's sweetness index (SI)

E.g.   Equiv. cals for honey   =  7.1 g/tsp. * 3 cals /g    ÷    .94   =    21.3 cals / tsp   ÷   .94  =    23

Equivalent # of teaspoons to equal 1 tsp. of sucrose sweetness is calculated as:

Equiv. cals. to equal sweetness of 1 tsp sucrose    ÷     Cals. / tsp

E.g.    Equiv. # of tsps. of honey  =   23 equiv. cals.   ÷   21.3 cals / tsp.    =  1 "good" tsp. 😊

Glycemic Load (GL) is calculated as:

 Food's GI   *    (Grams of carbohydrates / serving size)      /100

E.g.    GL of sucrose = 65 * 4g     /100    =  2.6

"Sugars" in last column gives the percentage of total sugars in the specific sweetener, not percentage of total composition (which would include moisture content)

Sweetness Index

Sucrose is the standard to which all other sweeteners are compared. 

How is SI determined?   The simplest method uses the discrimination method , which asks the tester to choose the sweetest between two samples (2-alternative forced choice or 2-AFC).  This has not unexpectedly yielded different results from different test sources. The following chart lists the average findings.

Humans can recognize sweetness in about 1 or 2% sucrose solution.   Coffee is typically sweetened to about the level of 5% sucrose. Soft drinks are usually about as sweet as 10% sucrose.  

Calories and teaspoons

There are 4.02 grams (nutrition facts generally round this down to 4 g / tsp.)  in 1 U.S. / metric teaspoon (5cc or 5 ml) of granulated table sugar. BTW - the Brits' definition of a teaspoon is whatever comes out of the cutlery drawer to stir their tea  :)  

A web search reveals varying figures for amounts of calories in sugar comparisons.  This is mainly because people have different ideas on teaspoon size, do not account for different densities of sugars (which determines calories / teaspoon), and also round off numbers.  The calculations here are specified.

The "Calorie" mentioned on a food package is actually a kilocalorie, or 1,000 calories. A Calorie (really kcal) is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius. 

Chart of NATURAL Nutritive Sweeteners
SWEETENER Equiv cals.
to = 1 tsp.
of sucrose
sweetness
g/
tsp
Cal
/g
Sweetness
Index (SI):
Glucose
 = 1
Glyc.
Index
(GI)
Glyc.
Load
(GL)
Notes Sugars / Production
Sucrose (Table sugar)
(Domino's granulated; demerara brown)

15 cals
(1 tsp.  or 5cc)
4 3.75 1 65
+/-4
2.6 In honey, maple syrup, fruit, veg;
Used in candies, desserts 

Glycosidic/covalent bond links glucose and fructose molecules
50% glucose /50% fructose;
from sugar cane or beet;
Confectioners sugar 16 cals 2.54 3.99       Used in candies, cakes etc.
Glucose (Dextrose;
Grape sugar)
18 cals
( ~1 1/3 tsp)
4 3.33
3.8
0.74

100

5.2 Adds sweetness and texture to food;
Used in hospital drips, vit C prod.
Monosaccharide; C6H12O6 ;
Body's main fuel;
Fructose (fruit sugar) 10 cals
(~2/3 tsp)
4 3.66 1.5
19 0.5 In fruit/veg, HFCS;
used in relatively minor amounts;
Monosaccharide;
Digested differently to other sugars
(excessive intake linked to several health problems);
mostly From modified corn starch;
Galactose 38 cals
(2 1/4 tsp)
4 4.2
0.44
0.3
.35
.6
.4-.6
25
  In milk and dairy Monosaccharide;
Lactose (milk sugar)
88 cals 4 4.2 0.19
0.15
.2
.16
.2-.3
45
  In milk (but almost none in butter, cheese and yogurt) Disaccharide;
(glycosidic bond: glucose+galactose)
Maltose
56
(1/3 tsp)
4 4.2 0.3
.3-.5
.5
.32
.3-.4
105   In beer;
used in bread-making;
sold as syrup;
Disaccharide;
glycosidic bond: (glucose+glucose)
from germinated barley;
Trehalose (glucose+glucose) 37 cals
(~ 1/2 tsp)
4 4.2 0.45 70   In mushrooms, honey, bread, beer, wine, 20% in shiitake mushrooms and baker's yeast; cocoon of the beetle Trehala manna (likely source of manna in OT);  
Dehydrated/Evaporated natural sugar cane juice
16 cals
(1 tsp)
4   1 43   Rapidura®; Sucanat® (contraction of sugar cane natural);
burnt caramel taste;
Unrefined, crystallized cane sugar;
Muscovado Sugar             Moist;
strong molasses flavor
Unrefined cane sugar w/ high molasses content
Turbinado sugar             light caramel flavor from 1st pressing of sugar cane, retains some molasses;
Brown sugar               Brown sugar is refined white sugar w/ molasses added back in;
Demerara sugar             Crunchy grains;
Toffee flavor
Boiled /dehydrated first-pressed sugar cane juice; retains some molasses
Coconut sugar                
SWEETENER Equiv cals.
to =1 tsp.
of sugar's
sweetness
g/
tsp
Cal
/g
Sweetness
Index (SI):
Glucose
 = 1
Glyc.
Index
(GI)
Glyc.
Load
(GL)
Notes Sugars / Production
Raw Honey - "Natural antibiotic" 23 cals
(~1 tsp)

( 7.1g/tsp
* 3 cals/g
=21.3 cals/tsp
then ÷ .94
= 23)
 Equiv. tsp.
is 23 ÷ 21.3
7.1 3 .94
55
+/-3
4   Natural sugar;
Produced by bees from nectar;
sugars: 43% glucose / 49% fructose
/5% disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, maltulose, turanose and kojibiose)
Maple syrup 13 cals
(1 tsp)
5 2.6 1
0.6
54     Natural sugar;
boiled/evaporated maple sap;
~ 50% glucose /50% fructose
Blackstrap Molasses 17 cals
 (1 1/4 tsp)
7.1 2 0.85
55     Sugar extract
Barley malt syrup 40.6
 (2 tsp)
7.1 2.86
3.2
0.5 45
42
    Sugar extract;
germinated barley;
Turbinado cane sugar               Natural sugar
Date sugar   4.56 3.3         Natural sugar
Golden syrup     1.1   60   Tate and Lyles Golden Syrup 49% fructose/49% glucose/10% other
Invert sugar         50   Used in food industry; soft centers of candies,  marzipan,  liqueurs; helps preserves foods; prevents crystallization /drying out; Made from sucrose; draws water;
45% glucose /45% fructose (unbound) /10% other;
Chart of Highly-refined / MODIFIED sugar (Enzyme-converted starch)
Nutritive sweeteners
SWEETENER Equiv cals
to =1 tsp.
of sugar's
sweetness
g
/
tsp
Cal
/
g
Sweetness
Index (SI):
Glucose
 = 1
Glyc.
Index
(GI)
Glyc.
Load
(GL)
Found /Used in Sugars / Production
High fructose corn syrup
       
1   Made from corn starch
HFCS-42
42% fructose
27 6.75 4 1 58   Beverages, processed foods, cereals,
 baked goods
42% fructose / 52% glucose
HFCS-55
55% fructose
24 6.75 4 1.1
68
  soft drinks 55% fructose / 41% glucose
Corn syrup
/glucose syrup
      30-40 100     Glucose + oligoglucose
(short chains of glucose)
Corn syrup solids       23-40 100     Dehydrated corn syrup
Agave syrup / nectar 13.5
(1/2+ tsp)
7.1 2.86 1.5

12.5
    Up to 92% fructose;
highly refined
Brown rice syrup 32   4
2.6
0.5 25-98     Enzymes used to breakdown starch in cooked brown rice;
metabolizes to 100% glucose
Maltodextrin       6-21 100   Additive in processed foods Longer glucose chains than corn syrup;
Made from corn, potato starch, rice, wheat

References

https://www.aqua-calc.com/calculate/food-volume-to-weight

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