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Cell Messengers - Hormones, Neurotransmitters, Eicosonoids (E.g. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes)

Cell Messengers

Signaling molecules

Eicosonoids –“Local Hormones”

Signaling Molecules

A signaling molecule is a chemical involved in transmitting information between cells

–   Released from the cell sending the signal

–    Transverses the gap between cells by diffusion – then interacts with specific receptors in another cell

–   Triggers a response in receptor cell - by activating a series of enzyme-controlled reactions which lead to changes inside the cell.

Types of signaling moleculesinclude hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors

Hormones

Hormones regulate the body's biochemical reactions for everything the body does and makes -A balanced hormone presence will decrease the symptoms of aging (aging skin, memory loss, fatigue, aches /pains / stiffness, shortened life-span) and restore vitality, sexuality, a slim figure, a good attitude, healthier bones, a healthier heart, and a sharper brain.

Present in all multi-cellular organisms, a hormone is a “communication device”- in the form of a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one or more cells to other cells in the organism, to affect a change in the receiving cells. Only a small amount of hormone is required. Different hormones work together to regulate many body functions, including:

✔ Mood

✔ Tissue function

✔ Growth and Development

✔ Metabolism

List of Human Hormones

MELATONIN

OXYTOCIN

SERATONIN

PARATHYROIID HORMONE

THYROXINE (T4)

PROLACTIN

TRIIODO-THYRONINE (T3)

RELAXIN

EPINEPHRINE

SECRETIN

NOR-EPINEPHRINE

SOMATOSTATIN

DOPAMINE

THROMBOPOIETIN

HISTAMINE

THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (aka THYROTROPIN)

THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE

ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE

PROLACTIN-RELEASING HORMONE

ADIPONECTIN

LIPOTROPIN

ADRENOCORTICO-TROPIN HORMONE

BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE

ANGIOTENSINOGEN / ANGIOTENSIN

NEUROPEPTIDE Y

ANTIDIURETICHORMONE(aka VASOPRESSIN)

PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

ATRIAL-NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE

RENIN

CALCITONIN

CORTISOL

CHOLECYSTOKININ

ALDOSTERONE

CORTICOTROPIN -RELEASING HORMONE

Testosterone

ERYTHROPOIETIN

Dehydro-epiandrosterone

FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE

ANDROSTENEDIONE

GASTRIN

DIHYDRO-Testosterone

GHRELIN

ESTRADIOL

GLUCAGON

ESTRONE

GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE

ESTRIOL

GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE

PROGESTERONE

HUMAC CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

CALCITRIOL (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3)

HUMAN PLACENTAL LACTOGEN

CALCIDIOL (25-hydroxyvitamin D3)

GROWTH HORMONE

PROLACTIN-RELEASING HORMONE

INHIBIN

LIPOTROPIN

INSULIN

BRAINNATRIURETICPEPTIDE

INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR

NEUROPEPTIDE Y

LEPTIN

PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

LUTEINIZING HORMONE

RENIN

MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE

ENKEPHALIN

OREXIN

ENDOTHELIN

For more information on hormone production, their effects and how they travel:

Hormones 101 –“Feel Good, Look Good”

Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the body that transmit signals from a nerve cell(neuron) to a target cell across a synapse

An adjacent nerve cell

✔ A muscle fiber -to stimulate movement

A body organ cell

Other tissue cell

List of Common Neurotransmitters

ASPARTATE

GLUTAMATE

GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA)

ACETYLCHOLINE

DOPAMINE

NOREPINEPHRINE

EPINEPHRINE

OCTOPAMINE

TYRAMINE

SEROTONIN

MELATONIN

HISTAMINE

GASTRIN

VASOPRESSIN,

CHOLECYSTOKININ,

OXYTOCIN

NEUROPEPTIDE γ

NEUROPHYSIN I AND II

PEPTIDE γγ

CORTICOTROPIN

PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

DYNORPHIN

ENDORPHIN

ENKEPHALINE

SECRETIN

MOTILIN

GLUCAGON

SOMATOSTATIN

SUBSTANCE P

VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE

BOMBESIN

NITRIC OXIDE

GROWTH HORMONE RELEASING FACTOR

CARBON MONOXIDE

ANANDAMIDE

NEUROKININ A AND B

ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)

For information on neurotransmitters and their functions:

Neurotransmitters

Cytokines

Growth Factors

Eicosonoids –“Local Hormones”

Eicosonoids are lipid signaling molecules that act like hormones, but only in the vicinity of the cell which produces them - 20-carbon-lengthEssential Fatty Acids (EFAs) (i.e. DGLA, AA, EPA) reside in the phospholipid bi-layer of the cell membrane and convert to eicosanoids (eico is Greek for 20) by sequential oxidation of AA, DGLA or EPA.

There are four types of eicosonoids:

(1)Prostaglandins (PG)

–   Produced by all nucleated cells except lymphocytes - by COX enzymes andterminal prostaglandin synthases (E.g. Prostaglandin-E

✔ COX-1 - responsible for the baseline levels of prostaglandins.

✔ COX-2 - produces prostaglandins through stimulation (PGs increased by COX-2 in inflammation).

✔ COX-3 – thought to exist in brain, may be involved in headache mediationby NSAIDs (E.g. aspirin, ibuprofen)

–   Prostaglandins have a variety of effects depending on the type of responding receptor

✔ Cause constriction or dilation in blood vessel muscles (vascular smooth muscle cells)

✔ Cause blood clotting or unclotting (platelet aggregation or disaggregation)

✔ Sensitize spinal neurons to pain

✔ Induce labor

✔ Decrease pressure in eye

✔ Mediate inflammatory reactions

✔ Regulate calcium movement

✔ Regulate hormones

✔ Control cell growth

✔ Acts on hypothalamic thermoregulatory center to produce fever

✔ Increases flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney.

(2)Prostacyclins (PG)

(3)Thromboxanes (TX)

(4)Leukotrienes (LT)

Local “Hormones”(Eicosonoids) –“First Response Team”

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