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Chlorine dioxide therapy (CDT)

Chlorine dioxide therapy (CDT) - A powerful bio-oxidative therapy

Chemical properties of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) molecule

About Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

ClO2 history

The discovery of ClO2     Dates back to the early 1800's, when Sir Humphrey Davy created the compound by mixing sulfuric acid with potassium chlorate.

Chemical properties of chlorine dioxide (ClO2)

ClO2 is a chemical compound that consists of one chlorine ion in the +4 oxidation state covalently (non-metal to non-metal) bound to two oxygen ions.  its chlorine is in ionic form as part of a compound, such as in sodium chloride (NaCl / common table salt). This is not the same as chlorine in its elemental form. For perspective - chlorine is the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water.

ClO2 is a relatively small, volatile, highly energetic molecule and a free radical even while in dilute aqueous solutions.   Although, it is stable in a dilute solution in a closed container in the absence of light. i.e. diluted watery solutions

At high concentrations, it reacts violently with reducing agents.    ClO2 functions as a highly selective oxidant due to its unique, one-electron transfer mechanism where it is reduced to chlorite ClO2-

EPA Guidance Manual 1999    Lennech Tech Water Treatment Solutions

ClO2 is a synthetic, green/yellowish gas with a chlorine-like odor.   ClO2 is a true gas (like oxygen) and so retains its chemical structure and properties at all times. ClO2 gas is 2.4 times denser than air. At extremely high concentrations (>10%) in air it can be explosive (this is nothing the therapeutic user needs to worry about).

Although it has an irritating chlorine-like odor and contains a chlorine atom in its molecule, ClO2exhibits physical and chemical properties that are dramatically different from those of chlorine

ClO2 stability depends on environment:

•    In the absence of light.   ClO2 is stable in a dilute solution in a closed container

•   In AIR.   ClO2 is an unstable gas that dissociates into chlorine gas (Cl2), oxygen gas (O2) and heat. 

AWWA. 1990. Water Quality and Treatment, fourth edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY.

•   Sunlight (photo-oxidation).    Quickly breaks ClO2 into Cl2 and O2.

ClO2 can be removed by aeration or carbon dioxide

ClO2 disinfects by oxidation, not chlorination

Differentiating factors between chlorine dioxide and chlorine

MOST IMPORTANTLY,  ClO2 behaves differently to chlorine in water

-   ClO2 is 10 times more soluble than chlorine in water (3.01 g/L at 25°C).    Especially in cold water; when introduced into water or other solvents it does not hydrolyze (i.e. form another compound) and remains a dissolved gas in solution. Because of this fact, it retains its structure and reactive properties

-   In contrast, chlorine in water dissociates to form:

•   Hypochlorous acid.   The main active biocide in solution, which with increasing pH dissociates to form hypochlorite ion, having only 1/20 to 1/300 of the effect of hypochlorous acid at controlling microbes. The efficacy of chlorine as an effective biocide is reduced with increasing pH

•   Hydrochloric acids

-   ClO2 is highly soluble in organic (hydrocarbon) substances.  E.g. oils, solvents, making its oxidative / biocidal properties potentially useful in other applications

ClO2 reacts with other substances via oxidation, not substitution (i.e. unlike chlorine, ClO2 does not chlorinate.    ClO2 contains no elemental free chlorine)

-   ClO2 is more SELECTIVE in its reactions with other substances than chlorine.   Since ClO2 has lower oxidation strength (Oxidation/Reduction Potential or ORP) than chlorine, but more than twice the oxidative capacity . ClO2 functions as a highly selective oxidant due to its unique, one-electron transfer mechanism, where its reaction end-products depend on pH



End product(s)

Low pH


With acidification, ClO2 first reduced to chlorite ClO2- anion and finally to chloride Cl- anion after accepting 5 electrons (ClO2 has an oxidation number of +4). The chloride anion remains until stable chloride is formed as a salt

Chloride anions (Cl-)


or high pH

Sulphuric acid reduces ClO2 to chlorite ions (ClO2-).


Chlorite anions (ClO2-)

High pH


ClO2 is broken down to chlorite (ClO2-) and chlorate (ClO3-): 2ClO2 + 2OH-

 = H2O + ClO3- + ClO2-

Catalyzed by hydrogen (H+) ions

Chlorite anions (ClO2-)

Chlorate anions (ClO3-)

In drinking water, chlorite (ClO2-) is the predominant reaction end-product, with approximately 50-70% of the chlorine dioxide converted to chlorite and 30% to chlorate (ClO3-) and chloride (Cl)

Werdehoff, K.S, and P.C. Singer. 1987. “Chlorine Dioxide Effects on THMFP, TOXFP and the Formation of Inorganic By-Products.”J. AWWA. 79(9):107.


Oxidation/Reduction Potential (ORP):

•    Oxidation strength or tendency of a chemical to acquire electrons (i.e. be reduced); the higher the oxidation strength, the more oxidizable substances the oxidant compound will react with.

•    Measured in volts - the more positive volts, the greater affinity for electrons and tendency to be reduced.

•    The metabolism of microorganisms and consequently their ability to survive and propagate are influenced by the ORP of the medium in which they live US EPA, 1996

Oxidation Capacity:

•    Number of electrons transferred during an oxidation/reduction reaction

Comparing CL2 and CLO2 oxidative strenghth

•   The powerful oxidizer chlorine (Cl2) tends to produce toxic by-products by reacting with (and thus limiting its effect as a biocide):

(a)  Hydrocarbons (C-H) to produce toxic organic chlorides (C-Cl) E.g trihalomethanes (THMs)

and (b) Various amines (C-NH2) to produce toxic chloramines (C-NH-Cl) -amines are derivatives of ammonia (NH3)

•   In contrast, the weaker oxidizer ClO2 does not react with ammonia and most organic substances and does not generate any significant quantities of undesirable/toxic organochlorine compounds.

 Typically, ClO2 ONLY (preferentially) reacts with:

(a) Compounds with activated carbonbonds -E.g. phenols (ArOH); does not break carbon bond; this property to destroy phenols is useful in water disinfection, since phenols can be responsible for an odor or taste

(b) Reduced metals -ferrous (Fe++), manganous (Mn++)

(c) Thiols (RSH)

(d) Aldehydes (RCHO)

(e) In aqueous solutions, tertiary amines (RNR'R") (producing secondary amine and an aldehyde) and very slowly or not at all with primary and secondary amines (RNHR') and other active compounds.   E.g. sulfides, cyanides

Hull LA, Davis GT, Rosenblatt DM, Williams HKR, Wegein RC, Oxidation of amines, duality of mechanism in the reaction of amines and chlorine dioxide. 1967. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89, 1163,

(f) Other active compounds -E.g. sulfides, cyanides

Oxidation/REDUCTION Potential (ORP) and OXIDATION CApacity of Various Oxidants


Oxidation Strength


Oxidation Capacity

(how many e- s are transferred)

Available chlorine (%)

Per molecular weight

Ozone (O3)


2 e-

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)


2 e-

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl)


2 e-

Chlorine (Cl2)



Hypobromous acid (HOBr)


2 e-



0 e- (O2 Gas)

1 e- (peroxides)

2 e- (oxides)

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)


5 e-


Comparing CL2 and CLO2 oxidative capacity

Having an oxidation number of +4, the chlorine atom in the ClO2 molecule accepts 5 electrons when reduced to chloride ion.   The oxidation capacity represents the “available chlorine”in the molecule, so you will notice in the chartabove that ClO2contains 263% “available chlorine”compared to 100% for chlorine i.e. > 2.5 times the oxidation capacity of chlorine. Having greater oxidative capacity compared to other oxidizers, such as ozone or chlorine, means that less chlorine dioxide is required to obtain an active residual concentration.


Attend to Diet, Lifestyle & Emotional State

N E W  S T A R T S

C-Reactive Protein - Reliable Inflammation Marker
hot flame


Chronic low-level inflammation (CLII) involved in almost all health problems

How to treat CLII

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT)


       "The medical kit of the future"

The Body Electric

General electrotherapy health benefits.   Used systemically and/or locally at specific problem areas of the body, its effective application has many benefits:

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Maximizes cellular energy production Accelerated tissue /bone
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There are several reasonably affordable electrotherapy devices available for personal use. The following electrotherapies are those that have received a significant amount of positive feedback:

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) applies specific frequency patterns to the head area, with the following benefits:

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