The thyroid gland is the most efficient organ of the human body - capable of concentrating peripheral levels of 10-8M inorganic iodide 100 times to reach 10-6M iodide concentration required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
The thyroid prefers to concentrate iodIDE, the mammary glands prefer iodINE
Eskin B et al, "Different tissue responses for iodine and iodide in rat thyroid and mammary glands." Biological Trace Element Research, 1995
~ ¼ of thyroid iodine is in T4 (itself nearly 65% iodine) and T3, the other ¾ is in the molecules which are precursors of T3 and T4
Supporting trace minerals
Se needed for both thyroid hormone production and as an antioxidant support nutrient to protect against damage to thyroid tissue and enzymes by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during TH production
An Italian study showed 50% of hypothyroid patients had improved thyroid function after zinc supplementation
The normal process of making and activating thyroid hormone is highly oxidative - resulting in a lot of reactive oxidant species (ROS) - which can only be neutralized by antioxidants. If antioxidant presence in the body is depleted, thyroid function must slow down to avoid excessive, unconfronted oxidation products. A struggling thyroid demonstrates a significant increase in ROS and consequential inflammatory signals (e.g. TNF-αand IL-6) which can result in damage to thyroid cells.
– Vitamin A – thyroid cannot produce thyroxin without sufficient vitamin A, which helps the thyroid absorb iodine;
– Vitamin B, folate
– Vitamin E - assists in the absorption of iodine;
– Vitamin C (and protein) – an influx of iodine pushes out bromine and fluorine. Sufficient protein (sodium iodide symporter) is then needed to transport the newly available iodine. Vitamin C supports this symporter.