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GSE GSE Thyroid Disorders and their Causes

Thyroid Disorders - Problems occur when the thyroid produces too few or too many thyroid hormones

Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism

A DAMAGED thyroid may not be able to produce enough hormones (called hypothyroidism), or  may “leak” hormones leading to thyrotoxicosis (high blood levels of TH) and so show symptoms of hyperthyroidism (usually followed by symptoms of hypothroidism,  since a damaged thyroid stops producing thyroid hormones and stored hormones are eventually depleted).

A malfunctioning, OVERACTIVE thyroid may produce too many hormones (called hyperthyroidism),

For more information on the thyroid hormones:

Hypothyroidism  (Under-active thyroid)


Hyperthyroidism (over-active thyroid)


The thyroid produces too little thyroid hormone.  This lowers the metabolism rate of the body's cells.

The thyroid produces too much hormone This speeds up the rate at which each cell functions. 

Hypothyroidism is seen:

    When there is an insufficiency of raw materials.  E.g.  iodine, selenium, and/or the amino acid tyrosine for the thyroid to make sufficient thyroid hormones;

•    In thyroiditis (incl. autoimmune thyroid disease) - generally an attack on the thyroid gland causing inflammation, damage and possible death of thyroid gland cells. Causes include:

✔  Autoimmune Thyroiditis produces Anti-thyroid antibodies  (most common cause of thyroiditis) – involved in Hashimoto's disease

✔  Infectious microbes

✔  Toxic substances /  Radiation exposure

   As a Goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland seen as a swelling at front side of the base of the neck).    It can occur as a result of insufficient thyroid hormone production (hypothyroidism) or excessive TH production (hyperthroidism) or neither.

Hyperthyroidism is seen:

✔ In patient's with Grave's Disease.    An auto immune disease with antibodies against the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (whilst also activating the receptor); characteristics include hyperthyroidism, high T4, and diffuse goiter.

Graves Disease

✔ In certain phases of thyroiditis:

The mainstream medical treatment for hypothyroidism is to supplement thyroid hormones

–    However, the better solution may be to simply provide the missing raw ingredients (such as iodine/iodide), antioxidants and antioxidant-support nutrients (E.g. selenium, manganese, and zinc) - to enable the thyroid to increase its own production of thyroid hormones without creating uncontrolled, damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS).

–   Over time, supplementing thyroid hormones can result in a “lazy”thyroid

–   And worse, supplementing with SYNTHETIC hormones has been shown to significantly increase the risk of breast cancer.

Thyroid Replacement Hormones

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