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GSE Thyroid Hormones

Thyroid Hormones T3 / T4 - Master Metabolism Hormones

T3 and T4 are produced by the Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland ("The Body's Thermostat")  is a butterfly-shaped gland wrapped around the windpipe - behind and below the Adam's apple. It is the largest endocrine gland in the body and the master gland of metabolism.


The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) inside its thyroid follicles

✔  T4 – Storage form

✔  T3 – Metabolically active form

Thyroid Follicles

Thyroid Hormone Production

T4 => T3 Conversion

T3 has three primary functions:

1. Enhance protein synthesis and growth

2. Help oxygen get into cells – determines how quickly the body uses energy (the basal metabolic rate (BMR)). Increasing cellular oxygen consumption increases production of cellular ATP (cell's energy currency)

3. Control body's sensitivity to other hormones

Thus, thyroid hormones basically influence all body functions, including:

✔ Nerve and bone formation

✔ Reproduction

✔  Condition of the skin, hair, nails and teeth

✔ Connective tissue strength and our speech/mental state

Most common problems of the thyroid gland are:

–   Excessive thyroid hormone production  (called hyperthyroidism) -  an overactive thyroid can increase BMR by 100%.

–   Insufficient thyroid hormone production  (called hypothyroidism). -  an underactive thyroid can reduce BMR up to 50%;

Thyroid Disorders



Book chapter on Thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion:

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