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GSE Thyroid Hormones

Thyroid Hormones T3 / T4 - "Master Metabolism Hormones"

T3 and T4 are produced by the Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland ("The Body's Thermostat")  is a butterfly-shaped gland wrapped around the windpipe - behind and below the Adam's apple.

The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) inside its thyroid Follicles

✔  T4 – Storage form

✔  T3 – Metabolically active form; see details of T4 => T3 Conversion

More on Thyroid Hormone Production and How thyroid hormones move about the body


T3 has three primary functions:

1. Enhance protein synthesis and growth

2. Help oxygen get into cells – determines how quickly the body uses energy (the basal metabolic rate (BMR)). Increasing cellular oxygen consumption increases production of cellular ATP (cell's energy currency)

3. Control body's sensitivity to other hormones

The thyroid hormones T3 and T4  influence every organ, tissue and function in the body:

✔ Heart rate

✔ Body weight

✔ Connective tissue integrity / Nerve and bone formation

✔ Energy level,

✔ Muscle strength

✔ Rate food moves through GI tract

✔ Menstrual regularity

✔ Body temperature

✔ Speech / mental state

✔ Reproduction


✔ Hair, skin, nails, teeth condition


Thyroid support

The thyroid requires certain ingredients to manufacture T3 and T4 hormones and to convert T4 to its active form T3 - including:

•    Raw materials iodine and tyrosine (an amino acid)

•    Thyroglobulin (Tg), Thyroperoxidase (TPO) enzyme and hydrogen peroxide - produced inside the thyroid follicles, the Tg protein molecule converts iodide to iodine via TPO enzyme (mediated by H2O2) for incorporation with amino acid tyrosine residues, to be used for making thyroid hormones.

•    Antioxidants and antioxidant-supporting nutrients - including selenium, manganese, and zinc, are necessary to control potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inherently created in TH production and activation processes.

Support Nutrients Required for Thyroid Hormones

Problems occur when the thyroid produces too many or too few thyroid hormones

–   Excessive thyroid hormone production  (called hyperthyroidism) -  an overactive thyroid can increase BMR by 100%.

–   Insufficient thyroid hormone production  (called hypothyroidism). -  an underactive thyroid can reduce BMR up to 50%;

Thyroid Disorders



Book chapter on Thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion:

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