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Cardiovascular DIsease / CVD / Heart disease

Ischaemic Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

(Includes: Coronary heart disease, heart attack, arrhythmia, stroke, TIAs, angina, high blood pressure, thrombosis,  embolism, hemorrhagic burst (blood vessel rupture)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death in the United States, Canada and England, killing one person every 34 seconds in the U.S. alone

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is typically referring to an ischaemic heart disease

Technically, CVD refers to diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system

Ischaemia is a restriction of blood supply to tissues - reducing delivery of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism to keep tissues alive

Ischaemic CVD occurs primarily as a consequence of occlusion of the arteries (due to a build-up of plaque on the artery walls, referred to as ATHEROSCLEROSIS) that supply blood, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle, brain and other vital organs - if oxygen doesn't arrive then the tissue or organ will die. Even more deadly, however, a piece of plaque can break off and cause a heart attack by blocking a coronary artery supplying oxygenated blood to the heart, or a stroke by blocking the carotid artery supplying the brain.

 ATHEROSCLErOSIS CAN LEAD to these common dysfunctional conditions:

✔ Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) - atherosclerosis narrows the coronary arteries; accounts for almost a third of ALL US deaths each year!

 Heart attack (myocardial infarction) - a blood clot develops from plaque, typically in one of the coronary arteries, causing a blockage, called a thrombosis), which blocks the oxygen supply to the heart;

 Arrhythmia - irregular heartbeat

✔ Stroke - blockage of carotid artery supplying oxygenated blood to the brain (ischaemic stroke), or a burst or leaking blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke), or mini-strokes /TIA's (Transient Ischaemic Attacks)  

✔ Angina - chest pain

✔ Hypertension (high blood pressure) -

✔ Thrombosis - clot formation attached to blood vessel wall in an artery or vein obstructing blood flow;

✔ Embolism - a thrombus  (blood clot or a piece of it, or a piece of plaque)  breaks off (then called an embolus) and travels through the circulatory system, possibly causing blockage of a blood vessel. Embuli can also be fat globules, gas bubbles or foreign bodies.

✔ Hemorrhagic burst (blood vessel rupture).

For more detail;

LIST of Ischaemic CVD Health Problems

Various other disease terms associated with the heart

Congestive heart failure - condition resulting from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body;

Hypertensive heart disease - caused by high blood pressure, especially localized high blood pressure. Conditions that can be caused by hypertensive heart disease include: Left ventricular hypertrophy, Coronary heart disease, (Congestive) heart failure, Hypertensive cardiomyopathy, Cardiac arrhythmias;

Inflammatory heart disease - involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the tissue surrounding it;

Valvular heart disease - any disease process involving one or more valves of the heart;

Cardiomyopathy – disease of the heart muscle

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