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Cardiovascular DIsease / CVD / Heart disease

Ischaemic Cardiovasular Disease (CVD)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death in the United States, Canada and England, killing one person every 38 seconds in the U.S. alone

2018 Reference

Ischaemic CVD Includes:
• Coronary heart disease • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
• Arrhythmia • Stroke (Brain aneurism or hemorrhage,  TIAs/mini-strokes)
• Heart Attack • Angina
• Thrombosis / Embolism • Heart or Kidney Failure

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is typically referring to an ischaemic heart disease

(Technically, CVD refers to diseases affecting the heart itself and/or the blood vessels)

Ischaemia is a restriction of  BLOOD SUPPLY to body tissues - reducing delivery of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism to keep them alive

Ischaemic CVD occurs primarily as a consequence of occlusion (blockage or closing) of the arteries that supply blood carrying vitally necessary oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle, brain and other vital organs - if oxygen doesn't arrive then the tissue or organ will die.

Arterial occlusion/blockage occurs due to a build-up of plaque inside the arterial walls, referred to as ATHEROSCLEROSIS  -  a piece of plaque can break off and cause a heart attack by blocking a coronary artery supplying oxygenated blood to the heart, or a stroke by blocking the carotid artery supplying the brain, both of which can be fatal

Various other disease terms associated with the heart

Congestive heart failure - condition resulting from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body;

Hypertensive heart disease - caused by high blood pressure, especially localized high blood pressure. Conditions that can be caused by hypertensive heart disease include: Left ventricular hypertrophy, Coronary heart disease, (Congestive) heart failure, Hypertensive cardiomyopathy, Cardiac arrhythmias;

Inflammatory heart disease - involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the tissue surrounding it;

Valvular heart disease - any disease process involving one or more valves of the heart;

Cardiomyopathy – disease of the heart muscle

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