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INFLAMMATION INFORMATION -Chronic Low Level Inflammation

Inflammation Information - Can’t Live with it, Can’t live without it!

About Inflammation

When you “catch” a cold (actually a viral infection) your throat becomes sore, your eyes water, and your sinuses are congested - These are the physical signs of inflammation as fluid and cells build up, as a result of the immune system’s fight against a hostile invader.

 

 

      Inflammation is a response to injured tissue -  by pathogens (E.g. bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites), toxins/chemicals (E.g. air particulates), physical injury, burns, or by an overzealous immune system

 

      Inflammation is characterized by increased blood flow to the tissue causing:

 

         Increased temperature

         Redness

         Swelling - as blood vessels leak fluid into surrounding tissues - a process that helps isolate any foreign substance.

         Pain

 

      Mast Cells  are “Key players in initiating inflammatory process”

 

-       Found in tissues

 

-       Mast cell cytoplasm is loaded with granules containing potent mediators of inflammation

 

-       Their surface is coated with a variety of receptors - which, when engaged by the appropriate ligand (E.g. LPS/Endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, peptodoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria), trigger release of granules (by exocytosis), some discharging their inflammatory mediators immediately, others later.

 

-       Dozens of potent mediators are released, which do either or both of:

 

         Recruiting all types of white blood cells to the site:

 

·         Monocytes - that become macrophages (“big eaters”) when they leave the blood and enter the tissue

 

·         Neutrophils - squeeze through capillary walls and into infected tissue to kill invaders and then engulf the remnants by phagocytosis;

 

·         Antigen-presenting dendritic cells  dendritic cells

 

·         All kinds of lymphocytes:

~ Natural Killer (NK) cells  specialized to kill certain types of target cells (esp. virally infected or cancerous host cells) in innate (1st line of defense) immunity

~ B-cells and T-cells - leading to an adaptive immune response (2nd line of defense);  

 

·         Eosinophils – blood levels increase sharply with parasitic worm infections. Eosinophils release the cytoxic contents of their granules on the invader.

 

         Activating many of these recruited cells to produce their own inflammatory mediators

 

      Some of the better known inflammatory mediators - which initiate inflammation or deal with the damage:

 

-       Histamine

 

         Released from mast cell granules in nearby connective tissues

 

         Increases blood flow to the area and the leakage of fluid, pathogen-fighting WBCs and proteins from the blood into the tissue space

 

         Produces redness and swelling

 

-       Bradykinin

 

         Produced from an inactive precursor always circulating in the  blood

 

         Dilates blood vessels /lowers blood pressure (by stimulating NITRIC OXIDE), and increases blood vessel permeability – to  allow needed blood components to enter the tissue space;

 

         Like histamine, effects produce redness, warmth and swelling

 

         Involved in pain mechanism

 

         Stimulates phospholipase - to increase the production of prostaglandins (local “hormones”)

 

-       Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes

 

         Potent mediators of inflammation -  these hormone-like messengers are derived from specific dietary essential fats (EFAs) in local cell membrane phospholipids. Consuming a balance of both inflammatory (most omega-6 fats) and anti-inflammatory (omega-3 EPA and DHA, and omega-6 GLA) fatty acids will ensure a balanced response when dealing with injured tissue;  

 

 EFAs - Local Hormones – First Response Team  

 

 

-       Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α)

 

         Large amounts released by stimulated mast cells

 

         TNF-α used to regulate immune cells - to induce fever, apotosis (natural cell death), sepsis (via  IL1 & IL6 production), cachexia, inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication

 

         All inflammatory cells have receptors for TNF-α and are activated by it to synthesize more on their own - This positive feedback quickly amplifies the response.

 

-       Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

 

         Produced by activated phagocytes: macrophages and neutrophils

 

         Toxic to microorganisms, but can also lead to tissue injury

 

-       Interleukin-1 (IL-1)

 

         This cytokine is released by macrophages, monocytes and activated platelets

 

         Its paracrine effects on cells in the local vicinity:

 

         Causes cells to produce tissue factor to trigger blood clotting;

         Stimulates synthesis/secretion of other interleukins

         Helps activate T-cells in the adaptive (2nd line of defense) immune response;

 

         Its endocrine (hormonal) effects via the blood:

 

         Decreases blood pressure

         Induces fever (stimulates prostaglandin  release, which affect hypothalamic temperature control);

 

 

Inflammation Links

INFLAMMATION  Related Links

ABOUT

INFLAMMATION INFORMATION    

- Can't Live with it, Can't Live without it!           

- Acute Inflammation 

- Chronic Low-Level Inflammation 

 Chronic Low-level Inflammation is a common factor in most health problems

INFLAMMATION PROCESS

 About inflammation Process

- Inflammation "Players"
- Mechanism of ACUTE inflammatory Phase

- Detailed  inflammation process 

CAUSES

Causes of Chronic Low-level Inflammation

 

Stress, Toxins, Damaged Fats, Microbes and NOT Enough Antioxidants 

 

Too Many Inflammatory Fats . NOT Enough ANTI-Inflammatory Fats

  

Too Much Sugar/HFCS and Other Refined carbohydrates   

 

 Too Much Meat & Dairy / NOT Enough B-Vitamins

 

 NOT Enough Alkaline-Forming Foods

RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS

Health Problems linked with chronic low-level inflammation

TREATMENT

INFLAMMATION MEDICATION

- Short-term Relief and Long-term, Natural Solutions

 - Short-Term Relief

- Long-Term Solutions
DISCLAIMER - The information given at this website is for research purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose or cure any mental or physical condition. It is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a licensed professional. In the event that you use this information for your own health, you are prescribing for yourself, which is your constitutional right as a U.S. citizen under Amendment IX of the U.S. Constitution, and for which the author of this information assumes no responsibility. The author of this information is neither a legal counselor nor a health practitioner and makes no claim in this regard. Any references to health benefits of specifically named products on this site are given as this website author's sole opinion and are not approved or supported in any manner by their manufacturers or distributors. COPYRIGHT 2009-2016