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Hormone menubar

HORMONES

Chart of Human Hormones

Chart of Human Hormones

 * Catecholamine (CAT) - Adrenal “Fight or Flight”hormones released in response to stress; Part of the sympathetic nervous system.  

Structure

Hormone

Abbr.

Source

Effect

A

M

I

N

E

S

Trypto-phan

MELATONIN

Pineal gland

Antioxidant / causes drowsiness

SEROTONIN

5-HT

CNS, GI Tract

Controls mood, appetite, sleep

Tyrosine

THYROXINE

T4

Thyroid gland

Weak thyroid hormone (TH) form;

▲  BMR and sensitivity to catecholamines (CATs); affects protein synthesis

TRIIODOTHYRONINE

T3

Thyroid gland

Potent TH form;

▲  BMR and sensitivity to CATs;

affects protein synthesis

Tyrosine

CATs*

 

EPINEPHRINE

Adrenal medulla

“Fight or flight”response;

▲  Oxygen /Glucose supply to brain/muscles

(▲  heart rate, stroke volume, vasodilation, breakdown of liver's glycogen & FAT cell lipids);

Dilates pupils; suppresses non-emergency systems (E.g digestion, immune system)

NOREPINEPHRINE

Adrenal medulla

“Fight or flight” response;

▲  oxygen /glucose supply to brain/muscles

(▲  heart rate, stroke volume, vasoconstriction, blood pressure, breakdown of fat cell lipids);

▲  Skeletal muscle readiness

DOPAMINE

Kidney,

hypothalamus

▲  Heart rate, blood pressure

Inhibit release of PROLACTIN & TRH

Histidine

HISTAMINE

Stomach

▲  Stimulate gastric acid secretion

P

O

L

Y

P

E

P

T

I

D

E

S

ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE

Testes

Inhibit release of PROLACTIN & TRH

ADIPONECTIN

Adipose

ADRENOCORTICO-TROPIN HORMONE

ACTH

Anterior pituitary

Synthesis of glucocorticoids and weak androgens in adrenal cortex

ANGIOTENSINOGEN / ANGIOTENSIN

AGT

Liver

Vasoconstriction /Release ALDOSTERONE from adrenal cortex

ANTIDIURETICHORMONE

(aka VASOPRESSIN)

ADH

Posterior pituitary

Water retention in kidneys.
/Moderate vasoconstriction /Release ACTH

ATRIAL-NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE

ANP

Heart

BRAIN NATRIURETIC

PEPTIDE

Heart

(Minor to ANP) Reduces blood pressure (by reducing ▼ systemic vascular resistance, blood water, sodium and fats)

CALCITONIN

Thyroid gland

Construct bone / Reduce blood Ca2+

CHOLECYSTOKININ

CCK

Duodenum

Release pancreatic enzymes /Release bile from gallbladder / Hunger suppressant

CORTICOTROPIN -RELEASING HORMONE

CRH

Hypothalamus

Release ACTH from anterior pituitary

ENDOTHELIN

Endothelium, stomach

▲  Increase blood pressure (by constricting blood vessels)

▲  Stimulates gastric acid secretion

ENKEPHALIN

Kidneys

Regulates pain

ERYTHROPOIETIN

Kidney

Stimulate erythrocyte production

FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE

FSH

Anterior pituitary

Female: stimulates maturation of ovarian Graafian follicles

Male: spermatogenesis /Enhances sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) production by teste's Sertoli cells

GASTRIN

Stomach, duodenum

Gastric acid secretion by parietal cells

GHRELIN

Stomach

Stimulate appetite / GH secretion from anterior pituitary gland

GLUCAGON

Pancreas

Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver

▲  Blood glucose

GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE

GnRH

Hypothalamus

FSH and LH release from anterior pituitary

GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE

GHRH

Hypothalamus

GH release from anterior pituiatary

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

HcG

Placenta

Maintain corpus luteum in early pregnancy

/Inhibit immune response to embryo

HUMAN PLACENTAL LACTOGEN

HPL

Placenta

Decreases maternal INSULIN sensitivity to keep mother's blood glucose available for baby

▲  INSULIN + IGF-1 production

▲  INSULIN Resistance (IR) & carbohydrate intolerance

P

O

L

Y

P

E

P

T

I

D

E

S

 

GROWTH HORMONE

GH or hGH

Anterior pituitary

a.k.a. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (hGH); Stimulate growth & cell reproduction

INHIBIN

Testes, ovaries, fetus

Inhibit FSH production

INSULIN

Pancreas

Inhibits GLUCAGON release /Promotes uptake of glucose in liver, muscle, & fat cells from blood, stored as glycogen in liver and muscle / Glycogenesis & glycolysis in liver

/Lipid intake and TG synthesis in adipocytes

INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR

IGF

Liver

INSULIN-like effects.

/Regulate cell growth & development

LEPTIN

Adipose tissue

▼ Appetite

▲  Metabolism

LIPOTROPIN

Anterior pituitary

Lipolysis, steroidogenesis;

Stimulates melanin production by melanocytes

LUTEINIZING HORMONE

LH

Anterior pituitary

Female: ovulation.

Male: Stimulate Lehdig cell TESTOSTERONE production

MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE

MSH

Anterior pituitary, pars intermedia

De novo melanin production by melanocytes in skin and hair

NEUROPEPTIDE Y

NP Y

Stomach

Production:

▲  Increased by food intake

▼ Reduced by physical activity

OREXIN

Hypothalamus

Wakefulness

▲  Energy expenditure

▲  Appetite

OXYTOCIN

Posterior pituitary

Release breast milk;

Contraction of cervix/vagina

Involved in: orgasm, trust between people, circadian homeostasis (body temp., activity level, wakefulness)

PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

Pancreas

-   Self regulates pancreatic exocrine and endocrine secretion;

-   Effects hepatic glycogen levels

-   Effects GI secretions

PARATHYROIID HORMONE

PTH

Parathyroid gland

Opposes CALCITONIN

▲  Blood Ca2+/indirectly stim. osteoclasts

-   Ca2+ reabsorption in kidney

-   Activate vitamin D

▼ (Slightly) blood phosphate:

-   ▼ reuptake in kidney

-   ▲  uptake from bones

-   Activate vitamin D

PROLACTIN

PRL

Anterior pituitary, Uterus

▲  Milk production in mammary glands

Sexual gratification after sexual acts

PROLACTIN-RELEASING HORMONE

PRH

Hypothalamus

Releases PROLACTIN from anterior pituitary

RELAXIN

Uterus

Unclear in humans

RENIN

Kidneys

-   Activates renin-angiotensin system (produces ANGIOTENSIN I from ANGIOTENSINOGEN)

SECRETIN

Duodenum

▲  Secretion of bicarbonate: from liver, pancreas, duodenal Brunner's glands

▲  Effects of CHOLECYSTOKININ

▼ (stops) Gastric juice production

SOMATOSTATIN

Hypothalamus,

Islets of Langerhans,

GI system

▼ Inhibit release of pituitary GH and TRH

▼ Suppress release of: GASTRIN, CCK, SECRETIN, MOTILIN, VIP, GIP, ENTEROGLUCAGON in GI system
▼ Lowers gastric emptying rate

▼ Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine

▼ Inhibit pancreatic release of INSULIN and GLUCAGON

▼ Suppress pancreatic exocrine secretion.

THROMBOPOIETIN

Liver, kidneys, striated muscle

Produce platelets

THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (aka THYROTROPIN)

TSH

Anterior pituitary

▲  Thyroid gland secretion of T4 and T3

THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE

TRH

Hypothalamus

▲  Releases TSH

▲  Stimulates PRL release

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

Gluco-corticoid

CORTISOL

Adrenal cortex

Anti-inflammatory / Immunosuppressive

▲  Stimulate gluconeogenesis

▼ Inhibit glucose uptake in muscle/fat cells

▲  Mobilize amino acids from extrahepatic tissues

▲  Stimulate fat breakdown in adipose tissue

Mineralo-corticoid

ALDOSTERONE

Adrenal cortex

Increase blood volume (reabsorbs sodium in kidneys)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney

S

E

X

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

A

n

d

r

o

g

e

n

s

TESTOSTERONE

Testes

Libido/ Anabolic (Energy building):

▲  muscle mass/strength , bone density, growth

Virilzing: sex organ maturation /scrotum formation, deep voice, male-pattern hair growth

Dehydro-epiandrosterone

DHEA

Testes, ovaries, kidneys

Virilization, anabolic

ANDROSTENEDIONE

ANDRO

Adrenal glands, gonads

Substrate for Estrogen

DIHYDRO-TESTOSTERONE

DHT

Multiple

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

S

E

X

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

 

E

s

t

r

o

g

e

n

s

 

ESTRADIOL

E2

Ovaries,testes

Females:

Structural:

-  Maintain blood vessels/skin

▲  Formation of female secondary sex characteristics

▲  Height growth

▲  Metabolism (fat-burning)

▲  Endometrial / uterine growth

▲  Bone formation

▼ Muscle mass

▼ Bone resorptis\on (increases bone formation)

Protein synthesis:

- Production of hepatic binding proteins

Coagulation:

▲ Circulating levels of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, anithrombin III, plasminogen;

▲ Platelet adhesiveness

Fats:  ▲  HDL, TGs ▲  LDL, fat deposition

Fluid balance: ▲  Salt (Na) / water retention

Hormones:▲  GH, CORTISOL, SHBG

GI tract: ▲  Bowel motility ▲  Cholesterol in bile

Melanin: ▲  Pheomelanin ▼ Eumelanin

Cancer: Promotes hormone-sensitive cancers

Lung function: ▲  Supports alveoli.

Males: Prevent apoptosis of germ cells

ESTRONE

E1

Ovaries

S

E

X

S

T

E

R

O

I

D

S

ESTRIOL

E3

Placenta

P

r

o

g

e

s

t

a

g

e

n

s

PROGESTERONE

 

Ovaries, pregnant placenta, adrenal glands

Support pregnancy:

-   Convert endometrium to secretory stage;

-   Make cervical mucus permeable to sperm;

▼ Inhibit immune response to embryo

▼ Uterine smooth muscle contractility

▼ Lactation

▼ Onset of labor

▲ Fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids

Other:

▲ Epidermal growth factor-1

▲ Core temperature during ovulation

▼ Spasm

▼ Gallbladder activity

-   Relax smooth muscle (widen bronchi/regulate mucus)

-   Anti-inflammatory

-   Normalize: blood clotting /vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy.

-   Assist thyroid function

-   Support bone growth (supports osteoblasts), teeth, gums, joints, tendon, ligament, skin (heals by regulating collagen);

-   Help nerve function / healing by regulating myelin

-   Prevent reproductive organ cancers by regulating effects of estrogen

Sterols

CALCITRIOL (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3)

Skin, proximal tubule of kidneys

Active form of vitamin D

▲ Calcium and phosphate absorption from GI tract and kidneys

Inhibit release of PTH

CALCIDIOL (25-hydroxyvitamin D3)

Skin, proximal tubule of kidneys

Inactive form of vitamin D

NEWSTARTS CHART

Attend to Diet, Lifestyle and Emotional State

N E W
S T A R T S


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   Electrotherapy

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Stress Reduction
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