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Hormone menubar

HORMONES

GSE
Enzymes affecting steroid production

Enzymes affecting steroid production /activity

Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

The conversion of one hormone to another is catalyzed by a certain enzyme.   As depicted in the rectangular boxes in the following steroid conversion chart.

The level of an enzyme presence in a particular body tissue determines the extent to which the hormone conversion will take place.   The amount of a certain hormone in particular areas is a critical factor affecting hormonally related health concerns.

conversion from cholesterol to sex steroid hormones

Steroid conversion chart

(conversion enzymes are shown in rectangular boxes)

At a Glance Chart

Enzymes affecting Steroid Production/Activity and Conversion Pathways

Enzyme

Converts

Prod'n /Activity

/ Conversion

Pathway

▲  increased by

Prod'n /Activity

/Conversion Pathway

▼  decreased by

Comments

P450SCC

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme;

Cholesterol

➔ PREGNENOLONE

(in mitochondria);

LH

Estrogens;

 

Lead;

Vitamin A deficiency;

Certain drugs

Series of reactions occur at the inner membrane;

P450 C17-20

(17α-hydroxylase)

 

LH

TESTOSTERONE

(affects cAMP pathway)

 

Ethanol;

Nicotine;

Certain drugs

Catalyzes hydroxylation and cleavage (converts steroids from a 21-carbon to a 19-carbon molecule in Δ4 and Δ5- hydroxysteroid pathways);

17ß-HSD

(17ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

DHEA

➔  ANDROSTENEDIOL

ANDROSTENEDIONE

 TESTOSTERONE

ESTRONE (E1)

➔  ESTRADIOL (E2)

 

Drugs: Cotinine, Danazol, Cyclosporin A, Lithium chloride.

Lignans (E.g. in flaxseed)

Lignans - Enterolactones (lignan precursors) found in E.g.flaxseed inhibit

 

-HSD

(3ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

 

PREGNENOLONE

➔  PROGESTERONE

DHEA

➔  ANDROSTENEDIONE

 

LH

 

 

FSH via LH

 

TESTOSTERONE

 

Lead;

Daidzein

/genistein

/biochanin A (isoflavones), Aflatoxin

In the male, FSH, stimulates release of a Sertoli cell factor that increasesLH effect on 3ß-HSD activity;

5AR

(5α-Reductase)

TESTOSTERONE➔  DIHYDRO-TESTOSTERONE (DHT)

 

 

In testes, liver, brain, prostate, external genitalia, skin, hair follicles and sebaceous glands;

DHT more potent than TESTOSTERONE;

DHT involved in BPH,prostate cancer, hirsutism

Aromatase

TESTOSTERONE

➔  ESTRADIOL

 

ANDROSTENEDIONE

➔  ESTRONE

(in females)

 

 

Gonadotropins (E.g. FSH, LH, hCG);

Age;

Obesity;

Insulin;

Alcohol.

 

PROLACTIN

Smoking;

Anti-mullerian hormone

Certain Drugs

Finasteride; PROGESTERONE

Nettle root

Flavonoids

 

 

 

 

In females, FSH increases aromatase activity, enhancing this conversion;

Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2).   Blocks conversion of:

PREGNENOLONE ➔  PROGESTERONE ;

Dioxins (in fatty meats, dairy) ➔  low TESTOSTERONE, and limited prostate growth;

Aminoglutethimide ➔ low TESTOSTERONE;

Lead, cadmium ➔  low TESTOSTERONE;

Cyclic-AMP Second Messenger System.     C-AMP pathway directly affected by:

•  Biphenol-A (BPA);

•  Nicotine;

•  Nitrate/NO;

•  Glucocorticoids;

•  Drugs - Lindane; Indmethacin. Chloroquine. EDS. DBA, Cotinine, Tylosin, Gossypol;

Nitrous oxide (NO).   Blocks steroid production;?????

NEWSTARTS CHART

Attend to Diet, Lifestyle and Emotional State

N E W
S T A R T S


Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT)

   Electrotherapy

       "The medical kit of the future"

The Body Electric

General electrotherapy health benefits.   Used systemically and/or locally at specific problem areas of the body, its effective application has many benefits:

Detoxification Wellness / Healthy aging Pain relief 
Relief from insomnia Immune system restoral Anti-Inflammatory
Maximizes cellular energy production Accelerated tissue /bone
/scar healing
Stress Reduction
Muscle relaxation / rehabilitation Increased blood oxygen
/ circulation
+++

There are several reasonably affordable electrotherapy devices available for personal use. The following electrotherapies are those that have received a significant amount of positive feedback:

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) applies specific frequency patterns to the head area, with the following benefits:

Balances neurotransmitters Relieves pain Treats depression
Substance abuse withdrawal Relieves insomnia Relieve stress / anxiety
Anti-Inflammatory Fibromyalgia +++