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Hormone menubar

HORMONES

GSE
Enzymes affecting steroid production

Enzymes affecting steroid production /activity

Why are hormone conversion enzymes important ?

The conversion of one hormone to another is catalyzed by a certain enzyme.   As depicted in the rectangular boxes in the following steroid conversion chart.

The level of an enzyme presence in a particular body tissue determines the extent to which the hormone conversion will take place.   The amount of a certain hormone in particular areas is a critical factor affecting hormonally related health concerns.

conversion from cholesterol to sex steroid hormones

Steroid conversion chart

(conversion enzymes are shown in rectangular boxes)

At a Glance Chart

Enzymes affecting Steroid Production/Activity and Conversion Pathways

Enzyme

Converts

Prod'n /Activity

/ Conversion

Pathway

▲  increased by

Prod'n /Activity

/Conversion Pathway

▼  decreased by

Comments

P450SCC

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme;

Cholesterol

➔ PREGNENOLONE

(in mitochondria);

LH

Estrogens;

 

Lead;

Vitamin A deficiency;

Certain drugs

Series of reactions occur at the inner membrane;

P450 C17-20

(17α-hydroxylase)

 

LH

TESTOSTERONE

(affects cAMP pathway)

 

Ethanol;

Nicotine;

Certain drugs

Catalyzes hydroxylation and cleavage (converts steroids from a 21-carbon to a 19-carbon molecule in Δ4 and Δ5- hydroxysteroid pathways);

17ß-HSD

(17ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

DHEA

➔  ANDROSTENEDIOL

ANDROSTENEDIONE

 TESTOSTERONE

ESTRONE (E1)

➔  ESTRADIOL (E2)

 

Drugs: Cotinine, Danazol, Cyclosporin A, Lithium chloride.

Lignans (E.g. in flaxseed)

Lignans - Enterolactones (lignan precursors) found in E.g.flaxseed inhibit

 

-HSD

(3ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase)

 

PREGNENOLONE

➔  PROGESTERONE

DHEA

➔  ANDROSTENEDIONE

 

LH

 

 

FSH via LH

 

TESTOSTERONE

 

Lead;

Daidzein

/genistein

/biochanin A (isoflavones), Aflatoxin

In the male, FSH, stimulates release of a Sertoli cell factor that increasesLH effect on 3ß-HSD activity;

5AR

(5α-Reductase)

TESTOSTERONE➔  DIHYDRO-TESTOSTERONE (DHT)

 

 

In testes, liver, brain, prostate, external genitalia, skin, hair follicles and sebaceous glands;

DHT more potent than TESTOSTERONE;

DHT involved in BPH,prostate cancer, hirsutism

Aromatase

TESTOSTERONE

➔  ESTRADIOL

 

ANDROSTENEDIONE

➔  ESTRONE

(in females)

 

 

Gonadotropins (E.g. FSH, LH, hCG);

Age;

Obesity;

Insulin;

Alcohol.

 

PROLACTIN

Smoking;

Anti-mullerian hormone

Certain Drugs

Finasteride; PROGESTERONE

Nettle root

Flavonoids

 

 

 

 

In females, FSH increases aromatase activity, enhancing this conversion;

Other Substances affecting Steroid Production

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2).   Blocks conversion of:

PREGNENOLONE ➔  PROGESTERONE ;

Dioxins (in fatty meats, dairy) ➔  low TESTOSTERONE, and limited prostate growth;

Aminoglutethimide ➔ low TESTOSTERONE;

Lead, cadmium ➔  low TESTOSTERONE;

Cyclic-AMP Second Messenger System.     C-AMP pathway directly affected by:

•  Biphenol-A (BPA);

•  Nicotine;

•  Nitrate/NO;

•  Glucocorticoids;

•  Drugs - Lindane; Indmethacin. Chloroquine. EDS. DBA, Cotinine, Tylosin, Gossypol;

Nitrous oxide (NO).   Blocks steroid production;?????

NEWSTARTS CHART

Attend to Diet, Lifestyle & Emotional State

N E W
S T A R T S


C-Reactive Protein - Reliable Inflammation Marker
hot flame

Inflammation

Chronic low-level inflammation (CLII) involved in almost all health problems

How to treat CLII


Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT)

Electrotherapy

       "The medical kit of the future"

The Body Electric

General electrotherapy health benefits.   Used systemically and/or locally at specific problem areas of the body, its effective application has many benefits:

Detoxification Wellness / Healthy aging Pain relief 
Relief from insomnia Immune system restoral Anti-Inflammatory
Maximizes cellular energy production Accelerated tissue /bone
/scar healing
Stress Reduction
Muscle relaxation / rehabilitation Increased blood oxygen
/ circulation
+++

There are several reasonably affordable electrotherapy devices available for personal use. The following electrotherapies are those that have received a significant amount of positive feedback:

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) applies specific frequency patterns to the head area, with the following benefits:

Balances neurotransmitters Relieves pain Treats depression
Substance abuse withdrawal Relieves insomnia Relieve stress / anxiety
Anti-Inflammatory Fibromyalgia +++