What is Cancer?
What is cancer ?
A cancer cell is a
normally aerobic cell turned anaerobic
A Nobel Prize was given to Otto Heinrich Warburg
in 1931 for this discovery . Cells become
(i.e. cancerous) due to lack of
to fuel their mitochondrial oxygen aerobic energy production.
(Note that not all cells use oxygen to create
energy;E.g. Mature RBCs produce energy by
Cancer (technically called malignant neoplasm)
is a disease where cells lose control of their cellular
reproduction capacity - rather than dividing in a controlled and programmed
manner, the cells continue to divide and multiply abnormally. Number of divisions
is not limited by telomeres on DNA (a counter system to limit number of divisions
In most malignant cancers (except leukemia),
cells form a detectable lump or tumor by invading and destroying
adjacent tissue. Formation of large masses of tissue may lead to disruption
of bodily functions by damaging organs or vital structures.
Metastasis. Defined as the stage in which cancer cells are transported through
the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Known risk factors for cancer.
ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, viruses (e.g. HPV,
hepatitis), chemicals (especially chlorine, asbestos, components of tobacco
smoke, aflatoxin, arsenic), tobacco, alcohol,
diet (low fruit /veg intake), being overweight, lack of physical activity.
Varies in type and location. The
most common cancers are lung, colon, rectum, lung and prostate.
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow.
Characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually the immune
system's white blood cells (called leukocytes).
Large cancer of the breast
Cancer is the leading cause of
death worldwide killing nearly 10 million people
in 2020 --- nearly 1 out of every 6 deaths
World Health Organization Benign tumors
Benign tumors (benign neoplasm) are not cancerous.
They are a proliferation of abnormal cells that stop growing by themselves,
and which do not invade adjacent tissue or metastasize.
Pre-cancer. Benign, non-invasive
tumors are also called pre-cancerous because they have the potential to progress
to cancer (i.e. become invasive) if left untreated. How does cancer start ?
Cancer begins when:
(1) More cancer cells are being created than . . .
(2) An overworked, depleted immune system can destroy.
Why is our immune system not strong enough to identify
and eliminate new cancer cells. The weakening of the immune system
is consequential to, for example:
A diet of
refined / over-processed food;
Toxicity in the body;
Lack of health-beneficial
energy sources / electromagnetic frequencies (e.g. too much artificial light
and not enough natural sunlight);
Lack of sleep in a
Inactivity of the organs of elimination (e.g. lymph, lungs, liver, kidneys, skin, and bowels).
All these subjects and more are addressed at:
Why the Health Problems?
What are the more specific causes of a cell
becoming cancerous? This is the burning question of the day,
however, you will find likely answers here:
Why do cells
turn cancerous? How does cancer spread ?
(extracellular) Cancer cells produce and secrete millions of
ENZYMES, which can destroy surrounding
collagen and tissue.
This would otherwise restrict the spread of cancer. The inhibit the degradation of
connective tissue in the extracellular matrix (ECM). "Rath Cellular
Therapy" and sufficient thyroid hormone
cells and microbes travel to new areas via the bloodstream. Destructive cancer cell enzymes
can eventually "cut" their way through
the extracellular tissue to reach blood vessel walls through which the cancer cells
may gain entrance to the blood stream. Cancer cell properties
The lifestyle of solid
tumor cells requires variable degrees of adaptation to an hypoxic (low oxygen) environment. In low oxygen conditions,
the much more efficient aerobic metabolism does
not work well. Cancer cells adapt to their new way of life by a number of mechanisms,
from membrane transport differences to variations in regulating the production of
cellular ATP energy.
Cancer cells have a competitive advantage over normal
cells - the high rate of
and concomitant release
of acid may give tumor cells a competitive advantage over normal cells in the immediate
environment. glucose consumption
Normal cells do not tolerate acid conditions very well.
Tumor cells do;
Dividing cells require certain substances.
The backbone for these crucial substances is derived from
g metabolism. lucose
Purines and pyrimidines to make
nucleic acids. E.g. DNA, RNA;
Coenzymes used in energy
production. Phospho-Adenosine compounds (E.g. ATP, ADP , cAMP), NAD,
NADP and FAD
It may not be possible
to revert anaerobic
cancer cells back to aerobic
by simply supplying oxygen.
Dr. Otto Warburg reported that even under
aerobic conditions, tumor cells consumed glucose and produced lactic acid at exceptionally
high rates. Note, however, that cancer cell can be destroyed by sufficient