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Magnesium is a Muscle Relaxant

Mg - Major Role in Heart Health / Blood Pressure


All the usual risk factors for heart disease can be the result of low Mg status - such as hypertension, high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high homocysteine, and high C-reactive protein. Recent studies show that high anxiety and depression (symptoms of human Mg deficiency) can predict heart disease even more than the traditional risk factors.

As cofactor in Na/K-ATPase pumps, Mg provides ATP energy for heart muscle cells – which have an avid and constant need for energy.

Mg levels affect cardiac excitability, contraction, and conduction -intra- and extra-cellular Mg levels playan important role via their regulatory effects on intracellular calcium movement in heart muscle cells;

Chronic high blood pressure can be caused both directly and indirectly by a magnesium deficiency

Low cellular Mg impedes a healthy sodium to potassium ratio - necessary for normal blood pressure.

Low Mg : High Ca in blood vessel muscle cells cause them to contract, resulting in high blood pressure - Mg levels determine vasoconstriction or vasodilation via its powerful role in calcium cycling in smooth muscle of blood vessels:

–   Higher Mg levels inside muscle cells produce a relaxing or vasodilating effect

–   Low Mg concentrations inside muscle cells is vasconstricting - a potential cause of hypertension;

Magnesium protects the heart from the negative effects of excess calcium - by blocking calcium entry into cardiac (heart) cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, reducing vascular resistance and naturally lowering blood pressure.

Mg may act as an anti-arrhythmic agent

Mg limits intracellular calcium overload triggered during myocardial ischemia - which may be a cause of ventricular arrhythmia; Deranged intra- and extracellular concentrations of Mg , Ca and K can manifest as cardiac arrhythmia

Mg deficiency has been implicated and documented in humans - in atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, torsade de pointes, ventricular ectopy, ventricular tachycardias, and toxic digitalis arrhythmias.

Whang R; Magnesium deficiency –pathogenesis, prevalence, and clinical applications, Am J Med 82:24, 1987

Mg has an antioxidant role

Mg has an antioxidant role protecting against production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS -which are involved with many degenerative diseases

–   Cardiac muscle necrosis and lesions were demonstrated in animals fed Mg -deficient diets– necrosis/lesions were consequential to ROS originating from activation of immune system cells

Weglicki WB et al; Role of free radicals and substance P in magnesium deficiency, Cardiovasc Res 31:677, 1996.

Weglecki WB, Philips TM, Pathobiology of magnesium deficiency –a cytokine neurogenic inflammation hypothesis, Am J. Physiology, 263:R734, 1992.

Weglicki WB et al, Cytokines, neuropeptides, and reperfusion injury during magnesium deficiency, Ann NY Acad Sci 723:246, 1994.

–   Increased susceptibility to ischemic / reperfusion injury of heart shown in animals fed Mg -deficient diets - Reperfusion injuryis tissuedamage caused by returning bloodsupply after a period ofischemia (restricted blood supply), whichresults in inflammation and oxidative damage rather than restoration of normal function.

Weglicki WB et al, Cytokines, neuropeptides, and reperfusion injury during magnesium deficiency, Ann NY Acad Sci 723:246, 1994

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