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Magnesium Maintains Cell Membrane"Battery"

Cell “Battery”/ATP production needs Mg

- Mg maintains the Cell “Battery”to “power”the cell

What is the Cell “Battery”?

In a nutshell, the cell “battery”is the voltage difference across the plasma cell membrane –typically -70 mV in a healthy cell, with outer membrane being more positive than inside.The charge difference is determined by an imbalance of mineral ions, such as K+, Na+, Ca++ and H+, separated on either side of the membrane.

To better understand the cell “battery”, read more about it here:

The Cell Battery

ATP needs Magnesium

ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells (produced by cell mitochondria), must be bound to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active - most ATP in the cell is Mg2+ complexed and most ATPases use Mg-ATP.

MILDVAN, A. S. (1987). Role of magnesium and other divalent cations in ATP-utilizing enzymes. Magnesium 6, 28-33.

Fukushima & Post (1978), and Richards (1987) presented evidence that Mg2+ which binds to the enzyme with ATP (Mg-ATP) remains bound throughout the reaction cycle at least until after the release of phosphate

The membrane pumps need Magnesium

The vitally important membrane-bound pumps are powered by Mg2+ (and its cofactor ATP) the most significant pumps include, the Sodium/Potassium (Na+/K+-ATPase), Bicarbonate(HCO3 –ATPase), and Calcium (Ca2+-ATPase) pumps.

ABOUT Mg-dependent NA/K Pumps

The Na/K pumps maintain appropriate intracellular/extracellular potassium/sodium ion concentrations

–   The Na/K pumps are opened or closed by a change in the cell “battery”voltage - stimulated by the trans-membrane potential, the opening of the Na/K pumps generates an inward current that affects the membrane potential itself (creating a reinforcing positive loop).

 

–   “No gas, No Go !”– a malfunctioning Na/K pump due to a lack of Mg-dependent ATP reduces the cell “battery”voltage and mitochondrial ATP energy production in the cell, which further negatively affects Na/K pumps.

 

Calcium Pumps use gradient generated by Mg-dependent Na/K pumps to regulate intracellular calcium

The Na gradient generated by the Na/K pump (Powered by Mg2+ and ATP)is used by cell membrane and endoplasmic reticulum membrane calcium pumps(Na+-Ca2+translocators) to regulate calcium concentration in the cell cytoplasm

–   Muscle contraction depends on a 100-10,000 times higher than resting calcium ion concentration inside cells - which is accomplished by pumping calcium in via the membrane calcium pumps and by using calcium pumps in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) (a storage depot for calcium, it is a special type of endoplasmic reticulum found in smooth and striated muscle that sequesters then releases calcium when the muscle is stimulated). Muscle relaxation occurs when calcium is returned from whence it came.

Magnesium - Muscles Relaxant

–   Protein/Lipid synthesis and carbohydrate/steroid metabolism - in its role in powering the endoplasmic reticulum membrane calcium pumps, Mg serves to regulate calcium concentrations in the cytoplasm by stimulating sequestration of calcium into the cell's endoplasmic reticula, which are responsible for:

 

✔ Synthesis of proteins / triglycerides / phospholipids / steroids;

✔ Metabolism of carbohydrates / steroids;

–   Mg deficiency leads to calcium accumulation inside cells (called calcification) with numerous familiar health consequences -malfunctioning membrane Na/K pumps (due to Mg deficiency or any other reason) result in a lower cell “battery”, meaning less ions cross the membrane for the mitochondria to use to produce ATP. Consequently, there is less power for the plasma membrane calcium pumps, which pump excess calcium out of cells, This results in the accumulation of calcium inside cells (called calcification), which can cause many health problems, including arteriosclerosis/CVD, cancer, hypertension, arrhythmias, muscle/joint pain and stiffness, cataracts, bone spurs, and on and on.

Mg prevents soft tissue calcification

Gradient created by Na/K pump is used to expel excess water from cell to prevent it from swelling

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