MELATONIN is produced by enterochromaffin cells of the GI mucosa and discharged into the gut lumen. Where, produced in amounts many times greater than the pineal gland, MELATONIN has several surprising roles protecting the GI tract from damage and preventing forms of gastritis.
- Although MELATONIN produced in the GI tract has a direct effect on GI tissues, its major influence on GI organs seems to occur indirectly via the brain-gut axis. Since the GI tract source of MELATONIN also contributes to circulatory levels. Mechanisms affecting GI organs include peripheral receptors, sensory afferent (vagal or sympathetic) pathways and the central nervous system (CNS) acting on these organs via autonomic means.
- MELATONIN protects gastrointestinal esophageal mucosa and against various types of injury
Konturek SJ, Zayachkivska O, Havryluk XO, Brzozowski T, Sliwowski Z, Pawlik M, Konturek PC, Cze?nikiewicz-Guzik M, Gzhegotsky MR, Pawlik WW.Protective influence of MELATONIN against acute esophageal lesions involves prostaglandins, nitric oxide and sensory nerves. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;58(2):361-77.[PubMed]
- MELATONIN seems to control the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). MELATONIN has been used successfully as an alternative to Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), whose main action is a significant and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is a major mechanism of reflux in patients with GERD. Nitric oxide has an important role in TLESR. MELATONIN inhibits nitric oxide biosynthesis, providing an explanation of the regression of GERD symptoms when using MELATONIN and other nutrients
- MELATONIN controls gastrointestinal motility, havingan inhibitory action on gastric acid secretion
Jaworek J, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ. MELATONIN as an organoprotector in the stomach and the pancreas. J Pineal Res. 2005;38:73-83. [PubMed]
Thor PJ, Krolczyk G, Gil K, Zurowski D, Nowak L. MELATONIN and serotonin effects on gastrointestinal motility. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58 Suppl 6:97-103. [PubMed]
- MELATONIN protects duodenal (1st part of small intestine) epithelium against gastric H+ By stimulating HCO3- secretion from enterocytes.
Konturek PC, Konturek SJ, Hahn EG. Duodenal alkaline secretion: its mechanisms and role in mucosal protection against gastric acid. Dig Liver Dis. 2004;36:505-512. [PubMed]
- Low levels of MELATONIN can lead to ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and sleep disorders. Commonly, patients with GERD also have a sleep disorder.
de Souza Pereira R. Regression of an esophageal ulcer using a dietary supplement containing MELATONIN. J Pineal Res. 2006;40:355-356. [PubMed]
Pereira Rde S. Regression of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms using dietary supplementation with MELATONIN, vitamins and aminoacids: comparison with omeprazole. J Pineal Res. 2006;41:195-200. [PubMed]
- Stress / anxiety disorders. May cause tryptophan depletion, and as a consequence, low MELATONIN levels, since MELATONIN is a metabolite of this amino acid found in certain protein foods.
Zimmermann RC, McDougle CJ, Schumacher M, Olcese J, Mason JW, Heninger GR, Price LH. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on nocturnal MELATONIN secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76:1160-1164. [PubMed]
- MELATONIN appears to be implicated in stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion after eating. Mediated byMELATONIN-induced release of cholecystokinin, acting through entero-gastro-pancreatic reflexes.
Jaworek J, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ. MELATONIN as an organoprotector in the stomach and the pancreas. J Pineal Res. 2005 Mar;38(2):73-83.
- MELATONIN's GI tract/ pancreas protective/healing mechanisms. Increasing MELATONIN levels should be considered for its substantial role in prevention of gastric and pancreatic damage and in accelerating healing of gastric ulcers.
• Damage-protective mechanisms of pancreas and GI tract. MELATONIN prevents various forms of gastritis and pancreatitis, via:
• Activation of specific MT2-receptors
• Scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) -MELATONIN counteracts the increase in the ROS-induced lipid peroxidation and is partly responsible for preserving the activity of key anti-oxidizing enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD)
- Accelerates the healing of chronic gastric ulcerations
• By stimulating the microcirculation
• Interacting withinflammation-controlling prostaglandins, nitric oxide released from vascular endothelium, and/or sensory nerves and with their neuropeptides.
Chronic low-level inflammation (CLII) involved in almost all health problems
"The medical kit of the future"
General electrotherapy health benefits. Used systemically and/or locally at specific problem areas of the body, its effective application has many benefits:
|Detoxification||Wellness / Healthy aging||Pain relief|
|Relief from insomnia||Immune system restoral||Anti-Inflammatory|
|Maximizes cellular energy production||Accelerated tissue /bone
|Muscle relaxation / rehabilitation||Increased blood oxygen
There are several reasonably affordable electrotherapy devices available for personal use. The following electrotherapies are those that have received a significant amount of positive feedback:
|Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) therapy|
|Near Infrared (NIR) class 4 laser therapy|
Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) applies specific frequency patterns to the head area, with the following benefits:
|Balances neurotransmitters||Relieves pain||Treats depression|
|Substance abuse withdrawal||Relieves insomnia||Relieve stress / anxiety|