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Magnesium - "The Missing Mineral"

Magnesium Menubar
Appropriate magnesium supplementation can eliminate CVD related problems via several mechanisms:

Magnesium has major roles in heart health

Magnesium is the best heart medicine to prevent hypertension, stroke, angina, arrhythmia, heart attack, blood clots, etc

Appropriate magnesium supplementation can eliminate CVD related problems

All the usual risk factors for heart disease can be the result of low magnesium status

Risk factors include:  hypertension, high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high homocysteine, and high C-reactive protein.   Recent studies show that high anxiety and depression (symptoms of human magnesium deficiency) can predict heart disease even more than the traditional risk factors.

Used regularly, transdermal magnesium chloride can sustain /supply beneficial magnesium levels to your heart and circulatory system. Transdermal delivery of magnesium chloride boosts magnesium levels to provide immediate cardiovascular benefits

Transdermal magnesium chloride

Magnesium operates via several mechanisms:

Magnesium is a cofactor in cellular transmembrane transport pumps  (Na/K-ATPase)

The transmembrane pumps are used to produce ATP energy to power cellular operations.   Relating to heart disease, a magnesium deficiency can mean there is insufficent power to pump calcium out of the cell. This can lead to cell calcification (hardening) as calcium builds up inside cell, and also affects the ability to relax muscles, negatively impacting vasodilation and blood pressure.

Magnesium provides ATP energy for heart muscle cells.   These cells have an avid and constant need for energy.

Magnesium is required for muscle relaxation

Magnesium levels affect cardiac excitability, contraction, and conduction.   Intra- and extra-cellular magnesium levels play an important role via their regulatory effects on intracellular calcium movement in heart muscle cells;  Magnesium deficiency can result in symptoms of tachycardia, fibrillation, arterial constrictions and angina.

Magnesium dilates the heart arteries.    Both the epicardial and resistance coronary arteries. Magnesium produces vasodilation by both direct and indirect action - indirectly by sympathetic blockade and inhibition of catecholamine release.

Chronic high blood pressure can be caused both directly and indirectly by a magnesium deficiency:

-   Low cellular magnesium impedes a healthy sodium to potassium ratio.   Necessary for normal blood pressure.

-   Low magnesium : High calcium in blood vessel muscle cells cause them to contract, resulting in high blood pressure.   Magnesium levels determine vasoconstriction or vasodilation via its powerful role in calcium  cycling in smooth muscle of blood vessels:

•   Higher magnesium levels inside muscle cells have a relaxing or vasodilating effect

•   Low magnesium concentrations inside muscle cells is vasconstricting.   A potential cause of hypertension;

-   Magnesium protects the heart from the negative effects of excess calcium.   By blocking calcium entry into cardiac (heart) cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, reducing vascular resistance and naturally lowering blood pressure.

Magnesium acts as an anti-arrhythmic agent

Magnesium deficiency has been implicated in humans in:   atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, torsade de pointes, ventricular ectopy, ventricular tachycardias, and toxic digitalis arrhythmias.

Magnesium limits intracellular calcium overload triggered during myocardial ischemia.   Such may be a cause of ventricular arrhythmia; Deranged intra- and extracellular concentrations of Mg , Ca and K can manifest as cardiac arrhythmia

Magnesium has an antioxidant role

Magnesium has an antioxidant role protecting against production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS.  These inflammatory agents are involved with many degenerative diseases.   Whang, 1987

-   Cardiac muscle necrosis and lesions were demonstrated in animals fed magnesium-deficient diets.    Necrosis/lesions were consequential to ROS originating from activation of immune system cells. Weglicki, 1996;  Weglecki, 1992; Weglicki,1994.

-    Increased susceptibility to ischemic / reperfusion injury of heart shown in animals fed magnesium-deficient diets.    Reperfusion injury is tissue damage caused by returning blood supply after a period of ischemia (restricted blood supply), which results in inflammation and oxidative damage rather than restoration of normal function. Weglicki, 1994

Magnesium keeps blood flowing smoothly

By reducing platelet aggrevation/stickiness, magnesium helps prevent the formation of blood clots. Bo, 2008.

Magnesium lowers LDL cholesterol levels/prevents atherosclerosis.   Mg +ATP complex regulates cholesterol synthesis (by deactivating the rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase required for its production). Magnesium also lowers inflammation, decreases oxidative stress, reduces homocysteine levels and diminishes endothelial dysfunction—all factors underlying CVD. Magnesium can raise HDL cholesterol, whilst lowering LDL cholesterol, since it is a cofactor of the enzyme LCAT which transfers part of one molecule to another resulting in the conversion of LDL to HDL. “The Magnesium Factor” by Mildred S. Seelig, Andrea Rosanoff (Note that adequate magnesium levels do not prevent the synthesis of cholesterol needed for healthy production of steroid hormones and vitamin D, since deactivated HMG-CoA reductase can be reactivated by other enzymes, some of which require magnesium for proper function).

Hormonal mechanisms

Magnesium is essential for endocrine stability /function

Magnesium  is protective against metabolic syndrome and diabetes.    These major factors threaten heart and vascular health.

Magnesium deficiency is closely associated with CVD

“Magnesium deficiency appears to have caused eight million sudden coronary deaths in America during the period 1940-1994.”

- Paul Mason

Calculations of American Deaths Caused by Magnesium Deficiency, As Projected from International Data

As magnesium intake fell during the 100 years since 1900, death from heart disease skyrocketed.   Adequate magnesium levels are essential for proper heart function and a magnesium deficiency can cause the heart muscle to spasm or cramp and stop beating (i.e cardiac arrest).  Harrison, 1994

Fatal heart attacks are more common in areas where the water supply is deficient in magnesium.   The average intake via diet is often significantly less than the 200-400 milligrams required daily. Eisenberg, 1992

Studies show low incidence of high blood pressure and heart disease where magnesium levels in drinking water and food are high.   Greenland natives, the Bantu of southern Africa, the Bedouin of the middle east and Aborigines of Australia were studied, but when these people moved to urban areas and began eatinga modern diet, they developed high blood pressure and heartdisease at similar rates to those in industrialized western countries. Altura, 1995

Lower magnesium concentrations have been found in heart attack patients.   Shechter, 1992

U.S. study of >10,000 people found that 79% were consuming less than the US RDA of Mg.   Conversely, the 26% of the study participants who were taking magnesium supplements demonstrated lower levels of C-Reactive protein (an accurate predictor of heart disease is a measure of inflammatory activity in the body). US Study, reported in the July 2006 issue of the journal Nutrition Research.

A high calcium to magnesium ratio “Spells” CVD

Calcium must be balanced with magnesium (and also Vitamins A, D and K.   All part of the calcium "team"), otherwise calcium causes calcification and arterial restriction.

High calcium levels (unbalanced by magnesium) constrict the heart arteries and increase the risk of heart attacks

-  Calcium deposits in the walls of the arteries contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis.   Arteries become hard and rigid, which restricts blood flow causing high blood pressure. Additionally, inelastic blood vessels can easily rupture, causing strokes.

-    Cardiovascular calcification lesions can lead to the development of CVD.   Including myocardial ischaemia, myocardial infarction, impaired myocardial function, congestive heart failure, cardiac valve insufficiency, and cardiac arrhythmias. There is a strong association between increased cardiac calcification and risk of death.

Countries consuming the highest calcium to magnesium ratios (high calcium and low magnesium levels) have the highest incidence of cardiovascular disease

-     Topping the list is Australia, then the U.S. and Scandinavian countries.   In contrast, Japan with its low cardiac death rate cites a daily Mg intake as high as 560 mg, mainly from Mg in sea vegetables and single-cell algae, such as chlorella and spirulina, and also a variety of ocean-related food sources, including Nigari (magnesium chloride crystals that remain after sodium chloride is removed and water is evaporated from seawater) added to drinking water, miso soups, steamed vegetables, etc. and used as coagulants in the production of tofu. Additionally, the Japanese have one of the lowest intakes of calcium from dairy products.

Those who die from heart attacks have very low magnesium and high calcium levels in their heart muscles - CHD patients treated with high dose magnesium survived better than those treated with other drugs. Intravenous Mg could save your life when administered during or shortly after a heart attack. (see below)

Study by Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago determined that insufficient dietary magnesium increases your chances of developing coronary artery disease.   In a study of 2,977 men and women, researchers used CT scans of the chest to assess coronary artery calcium levels. Beginning measurements were taken when the study participants were 18- to 30-years old—and again 15 years later. Results concluded that dietary magnesium intake was inversely related to coronary artery calcium levels. Coronary artery calcium is considered an indicator of atherosclerosis, in which plaque build-up blocks arteries.

The ratio of calcium to magnesium is vital for cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier.

Details of benefits of magnesium in specific CVD problems


Heart Attack

High Blood Pressure (HBP)


Congestive Heart Failure



Altura, B.M., B.T. ( 1995 May/June) "Magnesium in Cardiovascular Biology."Scientific American, Science & Medicine:28-37.

Bo S, Pisu E. (2008, Feb) Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular disease prevention, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Curr Opin Lipidol. 19(1):50-6.

Eisenberg, Mark J. (1992 Aug) Magnesium deficiency and sudden death. American Heart Journal, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 544-49

Harrison, Tinsley R. (1994) Principles of Internal Medicine. 13th edition, McGraw-Hill, pp. 1106-15 and pp. 2434-35.

Shechter, Michael, et al (1992, Nov) The rationale of magnesium supplementation in acute myocardial infarction: a review of the literature. Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 152, pp. 2189-96

Whang R (1987) Magnesium deficiency -pathogenesis, prevalence, and clinical applications, Am J Med 82:24.

Weglicki WB et al (1994) Cytokines, neuropeptides, and reperfusion injury during magnesium deficiency, Ann NY Acad Sci 723:246.

Weglicki WB et al (1996) Role of free radicals and substance P in magnesium deficiency, Cardiovasc Res 31:677. 

Weglecki WB, Philips TM (1992) Pathobiology of magnesium deficiency - a cytokine neurogenic inflammation hypothesis, Am J. Physiology, 263:R734.

Weglicki WB et al (1994) Cytokines, neuropeptides, and reperfusion injury during magnesium deficiency, Ann NY Acad Sci 723:246.

US Study, reported in the July 2006 issue of the journal Nutrition Research.

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C-Reactive Protein - Reliable Inflammation Marker
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Chronic low-level inflammation (CLII) involved in almost all health problems

How to treat CLII

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT)


       "The medical kit of the future"

The Body Electric

General electrotherapy health benefits.   Used systemically and/or locally at specific problem areas of the body, its effective application has many benefits:

Detoxification Wellness / Healthy aging Pain relief 
Relief from insomnia Immune system restoral Anti-Inflammatory
Maximizes cellular energy production Accelerated tissue /bone
/scar healing
Stress Reduction
Muscle relaxation / rehabilitation Increased blood oxygen
/ circulation

There are several reasonably affordable electrotherapy devices available for personal use. The following electrotherapies are those that have received a significant amount of positive feedback:

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) applies specific frequency patterns to the head area, with the following benefits:

Balances neurotransmitters Relieves pain Treats depression
Substance abuse withdrawal Relieves insomnia Relieve stress / anxiety
Anti-Inflammatory Fibromyalgia +++